Discuss About The Provided Articles Dealing Aspect Of Power?
Organizational behavior is an important aspect in building an infrastructure, which determines both the individual and group performances in any particular organization. The studies and the researches in this field analyze the human behavior in a work environment, which in turn affects the business structure, performance, leadership and commercial gain. The studies related to this field examine the interconnection between the management and the workforce. Models relative to this topic enhance the behavioral management in a team or an organization promoting motivation and correct leadership style, which is an essentiality to build a constructive team to increase the efficiency of the organization. Researches and analysis are performed on the literature reviews on the different organizational management criteria. Based on the articles provided, it is appropriate that experiments were conducted stating different aspects of decision making relative to power-possession and leadership qualities. This report analyzes the methodologies and provides concluding reviews on the experiments, mainly focused on the subjective utilization of power. Alongside, the role of the confident leaders in management is indicated through tested situations. Quality analysis relative to the provided substance is presented in the upcoming sections.
The first article specifically deals with the behavioral aspects regarding certain management issues when the executives are the beholder of immense official power (Fast et al. 2012). The article initiates with management and the leadership styles of the British Petroleum (BP) Executives. Their overconfident approach towards the risk management involved in this case resulted in the demise of workers from the explosion caused by a massive oil leakage while another recorded case would be of a large business integration that took place in 2000, resulting in an economic loss of $54 billion in shareholder market leading to the demise of the CEO. In both the circumstances, the decision-making regarding the organization was highly influenced by the over-confidence prevailing in the leaders. Lack of valid researches surrounding an organizational decision is thus, witnessed to cause potential harm. This article briefs the way over-confidence becomes a determinant of power through vivid explanation of power and adapting few theoretical and empirical supports that insights certain experiments relative to the establishment of the relationship between power and overconfidence leading to managerial distortions. The five-approx experimentations utilizing various methodologies were approaches, leading to the completion of the objectives.
The next article surfaces around power and loss aversion issues, focusing on the results of power on the characteristics of an individual and the ultimate reflections of the same on decision-making.(Inesi 2010). This documented analysis is done in an approach to establish more radical claims on the accusations against power-holders of being hypocritical, which is found to be more profound once they acquire power, wherein the power has the potential to alternate the anticipated results relatively to both gains and losses. This article sets loss aversion as the base of biased decisions from the power holders. Experimentations establish the relationship between power and loss aversion and possible anticipated risks surrounding it. The generalized analysis of the four experiments involved in the article resolves that power have an effect of minimizing loss aversion with higher level of anticipated gains.
The final article in the queue relates the effect of overconfidence on the efficiency as a leader (Shipman and Mumford 2011). This document states the importance of self-confidence in leaders as an essentiality simultaneously, viewing the excessive amount of confidence in a person might adversely affects the leadership he is assigned. The set of information provides the possible pointers indicating prevailing over-confidence in a leader and the way it is influential on the performances. Majorly, the article also reveals how the most needed qualities as a result, when in excessive amount can prove to be destructive for an organization. Through vivid explanations relative to self and over-confidence, four prime hypotheses are constructed to determine the objectives utilizing variant methodologies. The results are indicative towards the effects of over-confidence on leadership qualities including vision, planning or strategizing. Based on evidences, hypotheses lead to generalized concepts of the effects.
The article with the objective to establish that power is detrimental to over confidence influencing the decision-making process, conducted five experiments evidently presenting the same (Fast et al. 2012). Throughout the experiments, a persistent support was found relative to the promotion of over-confidence with the presence of power in cases. In contrast to this study, overconfident individuals are more likely to gain power. Although, the present analysis consists of few limitations, including the fact that the experiments were conducted in field-settings but in laboratory as well therefore, it will be correct to state that a more systematic and generalized view would be achievable if field-set experiments are conducted, majorly in work places including larger size samples. Another noted limitation in this study is the lacking of the estimation on the long-term effects of the relative terms as to whether it would decrease or increase. Little research is conducted on the effects of power on powerful individual in organizations during the decision-making process. While the strength of the article is that the present discoveries through this article successfully contributes to the literature of power and decision making, secondly, in small size but still to the profound relationship between power and performances and thirdly, presents a valid theoretical knowledge on the behavioral and psychological effects on an individual.
This study conducted four experimentations relative to power and its effects on loss aversion indicating that power increases the level of anticipated gains associated in a case (Inesi 2010). On the analysis of the experiments, it is found that the article in a productive way established the factor that power does reduces the chance of loss aversion. Following the experiments, it is easy to state that the experiment 1 did present the fact that loss aversions are less among people with prime power. While the experiment 2 and 3 evidently presented the major conditions relating power and loss aversion with an anticipation power is essential for avoiding negative outcomes with no such differences found in anticipated value for positive outcomes relative to power conditions. Experiment 4 performed; brought together the results of the past experiments to provide a final step to measure the independent effects if the stated factors. The study presented the measures, which passed the test of time having real implications on the individuals involved. The experiments present consistent results, contributing to the theory of power engaged with the domain of losses and gains. This study proves to be a significant step towards establishing the relationship and the effects and hence is successful in its objective.
This article dealing with the variant hypotheses establishes the possible effects of over-confidence on the leadership qualities in diverse ways, through researches with some noted limitations and possible practical implications potential to be applied on the real world leaders (Shipman and Mumford 2011). The limitation firstly stretches to the point that an undergraduate sample was considered for the study and analysis of the topic, with potential explanations about the effects on leadership roles but the query is relative to the generalization that might be applicable in reference to the solutions and decisions. The hypotheses did potentially present the effects utilizing the variant methodologies yet the relative effect sizes can be concluded to be small. As a recommendation point, it is suggestive to perform a wider set of experimentation to determine the effect on the population in a larger scale, easing the process of generalization involved. Another noted challenge relative to this is that situational variables are not included in the study, which in a way is believed to affect the leadership of prominent leaders at times. This is a valuable asset, as a human can get influenced by the same greatly. In addition to this the domain related to the task can be a determinant of confidence in a leader, there are significant co-relations existing. While the strengths of this article is also a topic to discuss, although the topic of over-confidence needed an elaborate research, this article sets a beneficial framework on the conceptualization of over-confidence and its effects on leadership primarily citing the deficiencies as the indicators of the same. The results derived from the experiments conducted in this article definitely have practical implications on the real-time leaders guiding them to maintain a level of confidence that would be beneficial and not destructive in any way.
The three presented articles with the set of results based on the experimentations and hypotheses majorly deal with the organizational management, which might get affected by some situational and natural characteristics prevailing in an environment or an individual. The prime factor is power and the related effects.
The first article in consideration, through conduction of five experiments successfully shows the persistent effect of power on an individual’s confidence and eventually his/her performances (Fast et al. 2012). In recent history, recorded events are even a proof for the stated objective in the article. Gaining power eventually increases one’s self-confidence to high levels resulting in a destructive way of decision-making, which can prove to be potentially harmful for the organization and others.
While the next article states the relationship between power and loss aversions. Conducting four experiments, it was constructive to highlight the behavioral changes that take place once an individual gains power (Inesi 2010). The experimentations successfully show that the basis of the decisions taken by power-holders is the reduced loss aversion and the anticipation of higher level of gains. The diagnosed information states that the power-holders are often accused of being hypocrites. The article builds a successful relationship between the facts that higher the power, lower is the risks of loss aversions also showing those with more power are surrounded by a greater number of rewards. The final experiment in the article set together the results to evidently present
The next article focuses on the results over-confidence derived from position and power can lead to destructive leadership qualities (Shipman and Mumford 2011). Sample hypotheses were constructed to highlight the adverse effects of over-confidence on an individual’s leadership qualities including his decision-making, vision and planning towards a subjective issue. The results are relative to practical implications surrounding real-world leaders. The article in a commendable way contributes to growing literature on self-confidence alongside its importance stating the fact that an excessive amount of the same, can prove to be destructive in the management process. It is an excellent guide towards a sustainable leadership and control measures for over-confidence.
This article states power often enhances the self-confidence to the level that it takes the form of over-confidence, which in turn results in a decision-making at times, evidently proved to cause potential harm for others associated in that matter of concern (Fast et al. 2012). The five experiments conducted in the article highlights the fact that over-confident people afford power-filled roles and alongside these roles eventually make them more over-confident. The studies show the reasons leading the powerful people to perform destructively, over-confidence being prime factor. Through such ways of decision-making, they often take an ill-informed decision with lack of proper market research or situation analysis, which eventually harm the organization and its employees as pre-mentioned two cases involving the demise of the workers and the CEO. Over-confidence leads to a lacking sense of responsibility towards performances and decisions. For further research it is suggestive built or find control measures that would shape the over-confidence down to the level of confidence that will prove to be beneficial and safe for the organization.
This article shows that power eventually reduces the loss aversion with significant implications stating a relationship between power and loss aversion. Situational variables are responsible for at times, activating the high-level power mindset. The pointers included in the discovery included in the article state that with a possibility of high-level gains, individuals often experience a shift in the behavioral and decision-making aspects. The power-holders are often seen to have least amount of concerns about the consequences of their decisions rather focus on the anticipated gains they are subjected to. Thus in a practical sense it is rational as possessing power would definitely reduce the loss aversion and more rewards, of which the society should be aware. The psychology of power suggests more rewards than any usual.
The article relating over-confidence and adverse leadership qualities through hypotheses of small size samples predicts the psychology of over-confident people (Shipman and Mumford 2011). The contribution from this article proves to be a constructive guide towards leaders of real-time organization as the power and designations assigned often cause a tilt in the behavioral aspects of the individuals. The hypotheses present the positive results of possessing self-belief, which is an essentiality for a leader simultaneously suggesting few control measures against over-confidence, which can alter the positivity to negative traits as is evident through hypotheses 1 &2. While hypotheses show a negative influence of seeing deficiencies and positive outcomes on planning tactics and similarly, hypotheses 5 &6 present the vision challenges due to over-confidence. As a recommendation, it is suggestive to conduct a more real-time experiment to ease out the idea of generalization and wider knowledge of the effects on population.
Fast, N.J., Sivanathan, N., Mayer, N.D. and Galinsky, A.D., 2012. Power and overconfident decision-making. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 117(2), pp.249-260.
Inesi, M.E., 2010. Power and loss aversion. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 112(1), pp.58-69.
Shipman, A.S. and Mumford, M.D., 2011. When confidence is detrimental: Influence of overconfidence on leadership effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(4), pp.649-665