2.Discuss the Pros and Cons of GMOs from a Nutritional/Health Perspective.
3.Write the most Important reasons for and against usage of GMOs in your Opinion as based on the assigned readings.
4.Summarise your Own Position and Expected Outcomes.
1.Legal, economic and environmental consequences of GMOs?
On the legal consequences of the GMOs it is regulated under the general statutory authority of the environment, health as well as the safety laws. The legal issue relating to the GMOs is the ‘genetic pollution’ which involves a mix of both the traditional common laws principles which relates to the property rights, patents and the tort liability as well as the regulatory rules which have been enacted by the government (Al-Babili & Beyer, 2005). In the case of the golden rice in Philippines the nonprofit international Rice Research Institute will need to apply for the approval by the government so that they can embark on the research for the golden rice since it is genetically modified (Al-Babili & Beyer, 2005). This organization needs patents to be able to carry out the research in Philippines of the golden rice.
Given the cost of bringing GM food to the market, any biotechnology company would want to make profit on their time, efforts as well as money. On the economic consequences of the GMOs it would bring the following; one is the use of the patent for profits (Enserink, 2008). Due to the high cost and time investment of the development of the GM product, the patent exists to protect the companies, nonetheless there are economic concerns around the use of these patents (Enserink, 2008). The consumers worry that placing a patent on a new kind of GM plant, the price of that seed may increase such as the farmers may not be able to afford these GMOs varieties. Another economic consequences is consumer costs. The pricing of the GMOs foods particularly at the consumer level could vary greatly (Curtis, McCluskey & Wahl, 2004). The prices may be higher while other time could be lower, which can reflect the complex array of the factors which influences the GMOs pricing and various production levels. On the environmental aspects of the GMOs there is increased use of the toxic herbicides as well as pesticides. Additionally, they may lead to contamination particularly when the GM crops do cross pollination with wild and non-GM plants.
2.Pros and cons of GMOs from a nutritional/health perspective.
The GMOs food has been found to provide nutrients to individuals. In the case of the golden rice its aim was to provide nutrients of the Vitamin A, which was deficient particularly to people in poor countries. They wanted to produce the yellow rice since it contains beta-carotene which is rich in vitamin A unlike the white rice that does not have (Ruse & Castle, 2002). In most of the poor countries individuals are malnourished because they lack enough food as well as vitamin A (Curtis, McCluskey & Wahl, 2004). Moreover, in production of this crop it will be less expensive and will provide the nutrients required. Additionally, the food is resistance to resistance to the diseases. The GMO crops provided a higher resistance to the disease and overall health to individuals since they have genes inserted into their genomes which provide protection. Moreover, these foods provide a better natural waste management.
Individuals can unwittingly consume bacterial toxin that are found in the insecticides sprayed to the GMO plants. There could be GMO toxicity which may negatively effect on the health of people. This may result in the various nutritional content, allergic response, gene transfer or perhaps the organ damage (Qaim, 2010). This can be evident to the Chinese children who were part of the experiment for the golden rice. The testing of a new food to humans could have adverse effect on their health since the scientist do not know the adverse effect or reaction it would bring.
3.Important reasons for and against usage of GMOs
The best reason for use of the GMO food is to offer nutrients such as Vitamin A which other foods does not provide adequately. This can be applicable particularly to the poor countries where individuals do not have enough food (Qaim, 2010). Additionally, GMO crops provide adequate yields as compared to the other crops. Farmers can get a high yield from producing these crops (Qaim, 2010). On the use against GMO is that it can lead to t potential health risks particularly when consumed can trigger allergic response to the body, organ damage or even gene transfer from these crops. Additionally, there tampering with the nature through mixing of the genes and no one knows what it is doing to individuals or the environment.
4.My own summary and expected outcome
Based on what I have learnt GMOs food can offer valuable nutrients to our bodies as well as they can provide high yields of production. Nevertheless, it can pose some dangers which can impact us negatively especially economically and environmental such as tampering of the genes, and the potential health problems. On my position is that on GMO is that it should do encouraged and implemented by the government, but there are some expectation that needs to be fulfilled. One such should be implementation of proper regulation and legislation framework, research should be enhanced to help reduce on the dangers they would bring to environmental and the health of individuals
Al-Babili, S., & Beyer, P. (2005). Golden Rice–five years on the road–five years to go?. Trends in plant science, 10(12), 565-573.
Curtis, K. R., McCluskey, J. J., & Wahl, T. I. (2004). Consumer acceptance of genetically modified food products in the developing world.
Enserink, M. (2008). Tough lessons from golden rice.
Qaim, M. (2010). Benefits of genetically modified crops for the poor: household income, nutrition, and health. New Biotechnology, 27(5), 552-557.
Ruse, M., & Castle, D. (2002). Genetically modified foods: debating biotechnology