Proportional Representation System: Democratic Theory Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Proportional Representation System for Democratic Theory.

Answer:

Electoral System comprises of rules that can help in determining the manner in which the elections are carried out and the manner of determination of the results. The political electoral system is organized with the help of government and it helps in governing the process of voting. It comprises of various aspects like who would vote, who will stand as a candidate and the manner of marking the ballots[1]. The proportional representation is the electoral system that is mainly used in case of national legislature. In the event of proportional representationsystem, various members of the parliament are elected from each constituency. This essay argues that proportional representation system can prove to be conducive for a new country and can pave the way for the development of the country.

The proportional representative system can be adopted by the new country and it involves the voters voting for the candidates that are proposed by a party. In the event of closed list system, voters does not have any influence over that of the candidates that is set forth by the party. On the other hand, in the case of open list system the voters can vote for party list and have an impact on that of the order of assigning seats. The Proportional Representation System has many parties that helps the people in getting more choice. The voters can in this case find a political party that represents their political conviction which is not possible in the case of a two-party system. This can help the people of the new country to select the party the ideals and principles of whom appeal to them. The small parties of the new country can also be represented in this kind of an electoral system and they would be able to represent themselves by having a single member within the parliament[2].The small party would be able to share their political conviction and he would get a chance to participate in the government.

In the event of proportional representation system, size of the constituency can be bigger and there are lesser possibilities of manipulation of the border as compared to the majority election system. Borders pertaining to the constituencies would be fixed with the help of historical considerations. There are different seats that are assigned to the parties proportionately to that of the votes in a constituency and hence the borders of the constituency are not that important for the results of the election. It has often been found that the increase in the number of the represented parties makes the chances of having a single party winning the majority less probable. The government having various small parties can disagree in the case of emergence of the new issues. This can become a danger for the political stability of the new country. The small parties in the case of proportional representation system can abuse the position so that they can get support in relation to the special interests. The proportional representation system in Canada can give rise to higher level in relation to political knowledge and the parties can prove to be more consistent. The citizens within Canada would be easily able to decide regarding the party that can reflect the political preference.

The proportional representation in Canada can pave the path for the participation of women of the women within politics. The multi-member district in Canada can help in the election of more women representatives as the parties can bring diverse candidates that can help in reaching wide voters. The new country has its own social along with political institutions that can greatly facilitate the electoral system of proportional representation[3]. There are various industries within the confines of the new country and the proportional representation system can prove to be fruitful for the developing economy of the new country. The proportional representation system can boost the economic condition of the country as compared to other forms of electoral system. The economic condition of the country would be able to witness rapid growth in the case of the country having proportional representation system. The new country has various kinds of Free Trade Agreements and it is carrying on additional agreement. The point of view and opinion of the people of the new country is crucial for the development of the country. The needs of the people of the new country can be met in the event of right amount of representation in the government. The people in the Parliament would be able to voice the grievances of the people and hence the proportional representation system can help in the expression of the opinions of the people.

Single member voting system has various drawbacks and it fails to represent the concerns of the people. It can deny the aspect of representation to various voters and it does not reflect the opinion of the public in the accurate manner. It discriminates against that of the third parties and it discourage the aspect of voter turnout. The fair competition in the new country can boost the economic growth of the country and aid in their development. The minor parties would be able to get fair share pertaining to the representation and the interests of the minorities will be taken into consideration within the new country. The minor parties become viable in the case of a proportional representation system and the competitive multi-party system can help in voicing the wants of the voters.

The proportional representation system can help in providing the voters with various choices and it can help in encouraging higher level in relation to voting. The people would be easily be able to find a candidate whom they would be able to support very enthusiastically. The voters in the new country would know that their voting will not be wasted but it would be helpful in electing their desired candidate. The multi-party system in the new country can help in ensuring that state along with federal legislature can help in representing political perspectives which exist within that of the electorate[4]. The heterogeneous elements exist within the political atmosphere and the proportional representation system can help in the perfect representation of the aspirations of the people. There will be fair representation of the racial along with ethnic minorities in the case of proportional representation system and this can contribute to the welfare of the people. The minorities in the new country reside within the majority white district and the proportional representation system would be able to give due representation to the voices of the minorities.

The women of the new country has a large number of women who are suffering from the brunt of oppression along with injustice and proportional representation system can help in voicing their problems with the government in the present age. There are various factors within the country like cultural attitudes that influences the number of the women who are being elected within the country. The method of voting is a factor that has an effect on that of the female representation within the political system. It has been found that more women are nominated within the countries that has the proportional representation system and the nomination of more women members paves the way for more women winning the office. The multi-member proportional representation district has various candidates being nominated. The proportional representation system in the new country would be able to eliminate problems related to partisan gerrymandering[5]. The drawing of the district lines can help in creating district majorities that can favour some parties along with incumbents. The proportional representation system can pave the path for high voter turnout along with fair representation pertaining to the racial along with ethnic minorities.

Minimum threshold refers to the minimum number of votes that is required for winning of a seat. The formal threshold in relation to a new country would necessitate that the parties should win certain percentage of votes that can help them in winning the seat within the party list. This threshold within the proportional representation system can help in ensuring the fact that the parties that are popular only contest for the election. The proportional representation helps in producing coalition government which suggests that more number of the voters can be represented within that of a single government. A coalition government has a shared mandate that can help in the arena of broader representation[6]. The parties have to compromise so that they create policies in relation to legislation. A coalition government in the new country would lead to greater policy scrutiny that can be of benefit for that of the electorate. The second party being in power in the case of proportional representation system can provide weightage to that of a particular issue that could be dismissed. It will thus diminish the chances of the passing of the undemocratic laws within the new country.

The proportional representative system can be favourable for the new country as it can help it to facilitate the access of the political parties into representation and can thus help in conveying the interest of the marginalised within the social structure. The principal pertaining to inclusion is crucial for the new country and it can lead to the development of the weaker section of the society. It can help in bringing stability within the divided society of the new country and it can help in the aspect of decision-making within the established democracy[7]. The proportional representation system of the new country can help in encouraging the parties so that they would campaign beyond that of the district within which they are strong. Incentives provided under the proportional representation system can maximise the aspect of overall vote irrespective of the factor from where the votes are coming from. There are ‘regional fiefdoms’ in the new country and the proportional representation system can reward the minority parties that have minimum number of seats. The electoral system of proportional representation can pave the path for greater continuity and it can lead to stable policies in the new country. The parliamentary proportional representation system can lead to increased voter participation and augment the economic performance of the new country.

Proportional Representation System of the new country can provide people with mount of choices that helps them to select the government of their liking. The voters can bring to power a political party that highlights the political conviction of the people. The people within the new country can select party whose ideals they find appealing. The social and political institutions of that of the new country can be conducive for the proportional representation system. The new country has many industries and the proportional representation system can help in the development of the economy of the country. Proportional representation system can help in boosting the economy of the country when compared to the other electoral systems. Multi-party system can represent the political perspectives in the electorate. Proportional representation system can help in representing the aspirations in relation to the people.

References:

Bickerton, James, and Alain-G. Gagnon, eds. Canadian politics. University of Toronto Press, 2014.

Christiano, Thomas. The rule of the many: Fundamental issues in democratic theory. Routledge, 2018.

Derriennic, Jean Pierre. "A Better Electoral System for Canada: Moderate Proportional Representation With Ranked Ballots." Canadian parliamentary review (2016): 27.

Lehoucq, Fabrice, and Kiril Kolev. "Electoral fraud is less common in proportional representation systems than it is in plurality systems." Democratic Audit UK (2015).

Marland, Alex. Brand command: Canadian politics and democracy in the age of message control. UBC Press, 2016.

Mavridis, Christos, and Ignacio Ortu?o-Ort?n. "Polling in a proportional representation system." Social Choice and Welfare (2015): 1-16.

Pukelsheim, Friedrich. Proportional Representation. Springer International Publishing AG, 2017.

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