Project management in the engineering and construction domain might vary according to the projects (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). In case construction is required to be done in some park, then a creative team is needed, if the project is related to building individual malls, and even a team of civil engineers is also required (Dainty 2006). In the present time, every organization tries to manage the projects with an individual specialization. In the case of Engineering and Construction Company, it can specialize in building sky capers, bungalow, malls, parks, theaters, etc (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010).
Project management area of the project is referred as structure, which is designed purposely, to execute the projects (Dainty 2006). It is mainly modified for reaching the demands of challenging tasks through separating the different work and for maintaining the firm emphasis on meeting the project (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). Once the project gets completed, this structure got disbands. Although this similar structure is expected to be good, while managing the resources throughout the project life (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010).
This section also depicts the requirements and techniques required during project planning of building main switchboards at rail centre (Dainty 2006). While planning in this case, it will be necessary to include forecasting, cost estimation, economic evaluation, and risk assessment. It includes the division, in which design and planning phase will include critical capital savings (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). The primary responsibilities might get procured at the time of construction and operation phase evaluation (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). The primary responsibilities related to project manager might get different as per the size of the company, maturity of the enterprise, the industry as well as the culture of the enterprise (Dainty 2006). However, there are certain mandatory responsibilities, which are similar in the project management company (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010)
Role of project management methodology in engineering and construction domain
The project management consultancy includes many functions, which are played during the process of construction (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). Engineering and construction projects require advantages to the customers in the context of satisfaction, and it includes profits, business development, utilization of a resource, etc. as this consultancy plays a multifaceted role in the project construction, it mainly includes the project through the inception of the project towards its completion stage (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). It is crucial to analyse the project management authority altogether. While doing this, it ensures that consultancy could be maximized completely for every construction and engineering project (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). Projects are managed by the project managers, and the same is supervised through the construction managers, along with their team of building engineers, design engineers and architect (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). Efficiency within the management is required to gain the high competitiveness level (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010).
During the period of construction, the emphasis is placed on the building and completing the projects, having less consideration over the quality and cost (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). The important portion of the budget is allocated for building various facilities; therefore, money was never a problem in charitable funds (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). Similarly, expertise in the area of developing and managing big projects is quite less, and standard methods of project management are also required to be implemented (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010).
Recently, this mentality is getting change. Awareness of the requirement within the controllable industry in the context of quality, cost and time had enhanced (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). Customers require to have some change, and they do not demand to have a fast project completion (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). They even demand to have high-quality standards as well as cheap execution (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). It is noted that end of the project is augmenting as more and more companies are penetrating the market. This shift in the industry nature demands to implement the methodology of effective project management (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010).
It is important to mention that different factors related to the construction sector are own towards high risk associated with the project (Stackpole 2013). Projects include large amount related to finance and employees, as it holds adverse social and financial effect over complete stakeholders (Gould and Joyce 2009). Many types of research had noted that the analysis and decisions are taken within the construction industry traditionally rely on the judgment, intuition, and experience, and never deny the facts that decisions require to be taken urgently (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010).
As project management is rapidly increasing in the 21st century, this subject had moved towards the discipline concept, which is practiced towards gaining competitive advantage in the global marketplace (Gould and Joyce 2009). Researchers are required to improve the project management practices (Highsmith 2009). Various methodologies are used, due to the time and research investment emphasizing over project management (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). In the year 1969, project management institute was explored, and they set the association, in which professionals from project management all over the world collaborate with the project management practices (Gould and Joyce 2009).
PMI had developed the guide for project management body of knowledge (PMBOK), which is an accessible guide related with PMI standards for all the project managers all over the world (Foxhall 1976). The PMBOK guide is not considered as methodology; rather it tries to promote different elements, which should be included in proper methodology (Gould and Joyce 2009). These areas are projected scope, integration, project quality, cost, time, communication, risk, and human resources and procurement (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). More details of the areas are included in methodologies, but this guide also advocates about all projects, which are included in project life cycle, including planning, initiating, closing and executing (Gould and Joyce 2009). Through the temporary nature of the project, use of project life cycle is advantageous in adhering with the time issues, provided at the upper level of management (Joy 1994).
Relying on the industry, and sometimes companies in industries make use of lean, which also undergoes various names (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). Lean development and lean production are considered as two examples of lean construction, and this name is same as construction industry that is originated through the manufacturing sector (Gustavsson 2011). Through the application of lean principles in engineering and construction domain, it permits to design both the process and products of production (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). The construction scheduling is quite reliable when it’s shifted from the enhanced productivity towards various workflow of a system for creating work for the employees (Milosevic 2003). As compared to the review and analysis of the traditional approach, it integrates with the starting stage, and it also involves a broad range of specialist (Khanna 1999).
The project management approach of agile was also same as it includes lean philosophy and various similarities towards two philosophies (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). The key difference among the agile and lean is that agile includes tested methods of working and includes special tools that aid the user in adopting the philosophy (Gustavsson 2011).
The lean concept was mainly originated through the production industry, in which Toyota tried to develop the Toyota production system, and currently, it’s known as lean production (Gustavsson 2011). The lean principle is however applied to all business, and it also results in an improvement. The key principle related with lean thinking is to explore and minimize the waste. All the activities, people and time that fails in adding value are deleted (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010).
When trying to explore what’s wasted in business, one can understand what values are required for nay business (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). The next step relates with explaining the activities and resources are needed to produce that similar value (Hass 2007). It might go wasted if one fails to work in a different way or it can be lost if it fails in adding value. While implementing the lean approach, the organizational structure emphasizes over value flow, as compared to functional expertise, which is also termed as traditional structure (Young 2013).
The second principle related to lean thinking is to centre all employees that try to add value. For instance, the project consultants in rail centre work to design the construction of switchboard. For the purpose of doing the work effectively, it requires proper training and apprenticeship as well as up gradation of skills (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). As a group, they will develop the process and even manage the entire issues (Poppendieck 2002). Their managers serve the aim of supporting the team, instead of telling them what they have to do.
The third principle related with lean thinking is the value flow from the demands. It implies that one can quickly produce according to forecasts, only when it’s demanded (Chitkara 2000). The term pull is also mainly used for explaining the value flow, and it should be removed when demand is placed, that implies that one needs to be committed before the existence of order (Poppendieck 2002). One of the main advantages of lean thinking is that there are no hidden issues that might come later and place stress and pressure over the project (Kogon, Blakemore and Wood 2015). While using lean, one don’t forecast the future, but they constantly try to expose the issues and solve them quickly (Poppendieck 2002).
The fourth principle optimizer in the companies. All these principles mean that, one fails in sub-optimizing the company nor does various performance measurement for different departments, Instead of that lean thinking mention that one need to structure the company around the value flow and then organize the teams and departments, so that they could easily maintain the responsibility related to complete business value (Poppendieck 2002). It implies that one could skip the standard measurements and ensure that everyone understands the significance of total market value and not particular to department value. Another way of handling the issues is to consider the downstream Department of clients, and middle management of performance is the satisfaction of internal department of the company (Segerfeldt 2002).
The principles discussed includes the similar aim of streamlining the value chain and for enhancing the outcome (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010). To improve something one requires to include something for improvement (Gould and Joyce 2009). At Toyota, they had made standardization towards working methods, which is a crucial part of any company (Tonnquist 2006). The process of standardization acts like the source for bringing innovation, improvement and employees development. Without having such standardized manner of working, it can become challenging, and it might become impossible to enhance the methods of working (Tonnquist 2006). Trying to improve the process could define and standardized and helped in generating various versions of standard methods of working (Ghauri and Gr?nhaug 2010).
Similar to the agile approach, the small incremental deliveries are developed during the project, instead of at the beginning (Harrison and Lock 2004). It can sometimes lead to a problem as the client prefer to know, what they are paying for (Winch 2010). Therefore, lean enterprises sometimes face issues and the structural contracts which they support in pre-defining the incremental deliveries and guarantee that business values will be handled as per the investment (Tonnquist 2006).
Project management consultant’s tries to manage the project through apply knowledge, experience, and skills at different stages. However, projects go through various challenges such as designing issues, long lead material problems, constructability problems, safety problems, Inter contractor coordination problems, and engineering problems. All these problems could be tackled through applying proper approach related to project management. It also includes including different tools associated with higher management such as round table progress review, reporting, conducting sessions of brainstorming, imparting training in various fields, designing the interface of construction, regular quality audits, delivery and quality diligence sessions within the team. Along with this, project management methodologies are quite efficient and effective only in the case when total project life cycle is involved. Awareness about the different process involved in project management of switchboard at rail center is important, as it might include many constraints like cost, time, scope, risk, and quality of resources.
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