Vulnerability towards a specific issue is the most pressing issue in the present world, of which energy sustainability and water sustainability are the most important issues. It is of great importance to assess and understand the serious issues which are within the system and to compare and contrast the measures related to energy sustainability and water sustainability in various Countries (Afghan & Carvalho nd). Sustainability index and the safety index are two critical factors which can evaluate and prepare a system for achieving optimum development in the World.
In this report, we would evaluate various actions taken by Australia and Singapore related to energy sustainability and water sustainability especially with relation to the factors given below.
- Government regulation of Australia and Singapore regarding energy and water sustainability
- Key scientific research and technological innovation of Australia and Singapore
- The actions of non-government organisations and the private sectors in Australia and Singapore
- Exemplar projects in Australia and Singapore
Government Regulation of Australia Regarding Energy and Water Sustainability
The development of the aspect of sustainability has become the most important objective of various Countries and its Governments. Sustainable Australia with its strategy – Sustainable Communities Strategy has been formed to enhance the present and future generations with effective policies as a response to the arising issues of the environment and economies.
Government has formed a National Urban Policy where they have been enhancing urban living conditions while promoting the regional development and improving ways of planning and evaluating change.
The Australian Government has been delivering environmental sustainability by introducing carbon price which has been formed to achieve an effective greenhouse effect through cost – effective measures and this is called as the clean energy initiative.
Water sustainability issues have been addressed by introducing water security campaigns which would run over 10 years. This especially has targeted the Murray – Darling Basin and the setting of network of marine protection while implementing National – Waste Policies.
The Government has also been influencing the growth of population by targeting a population limit. The main objective of the Government was that they should achieve an optimum population which can enable and facilitate an increased water supply which can increase the food production and an increase in renewable energy sources.
Key Scientific Research and Technological Innovation
Technological developments and communication have bene greater sources of enablers for most of the Australians to live and work remotely. This has also enabled the Australians to form organizations at remote locations from their main customer bases and stay within the communication networks with their families.
The Government has taken various measures for improving the social and economic opportunities through various initiatives like Government investments in the National Broadband network which can enhance the living conditions for the Australians.
The technological innovation has also been achieved through various implementations like the immigrant programs where they have used the skills of the immigrants in order to develop their production, marketing, management and technological fields. This move has resulted in a greater advancement with higher proportions of employees participating in developing the technological fields in Australia.
The Actions of Non-Government Organisations and the Private Sectors
Australia being one of the most fastest developing urban countries in the world with around 70 – 75% of its population in the urban areas, the private sectors and the non-government organisations are able to contribute effectively for the investment and support for achieving the energy and water sustainability (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011).
The Government of Australia has committed to bring in greater innovation in Australia with a specific agenda which includes the development of the public and private sectors with commercialisation of newer inputs with effective partnerships between researchers and the international industries sectors.
The private sectors with their innovative and productive skilled employees would bring in much awareness in the Country to enhance the ability of better usage of energy which can improve the economic growth from increases in greenhouse gas emission and the usage of energy resources.
The Private sectors will be able to adapt and implement the newer technologies to a greater extent in terms of implementing the irrigation, electricity, water and energy consumption policies.
Australian cities being the most carbon intensive cities in the world, are a lot scarce in terms of water, density, resource efficiency and amenities (Palmer nd). The most well – designed project is the Central Park Project in Sydney which has created an efficient mechanism in order to solve these issues mentioned above.
The Central Park Project is a new model of an Urban Renewal Project in Sydney which is a system of complex integration model and which can provide a reasonable low – carbon energy and a reliable system of water resources (Bureau of Infrastructure 2011).
The project innovation has introduced various aspects in terms of technical innovation, governance innovation and commercial innovation.
This private sector driven project has introduced a low – carbon green transformer system in Sydney which has given a new shape to the Construction industry in Australia (Hugo et al 2010).
They have incorporated new and cutting edge technologies in energy and water industries. This has led to creating shared thermal services, creation of newer generation of power facilities which can lead to low - carbon energy emission which can benefit the local community people with a lower impact of carbon presence in water.
Government Regulation of Singapore Regarding Energy and Water Sustainability
Singapore has been known as the World’s leading commercial countries with one of the biggest financial centres and the busiest ports. The Country sprang to the first position from fourth position in almost 50 years (Kiong nd). The main mission with which the Country could spring back was to build a competitive economy and to achieve a greater environmental sustainability (Kiong nd).
The Government of Singapore has introduced its first green – house plan with a 10 – year national initiative. In 2009 – 2010 Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources and Ministry of National Development has prepared a Blue print for creating sustainable Singapore with critical strategies for developing the green growth actively (Kiong nd).
The Inter – Ministerial Committee has sanctioned $ 1 billion for sustainable development over the period of 5 years. The land use plan and its master plans are reviewed almost every 10 years in order to ensure a sustainable and a liveable community.
Key Scientific Research and Technological Innovation
Singapore has formed various regulations in terms of the pricing systems, technological projects, raising consumer awareness on environmental sustainability, information and technology, environmental issues like the quality of air, environmental change and energy efficiency including environmental conservation.
Key scientific research and technological innovation were related to the policies mentioned below.
- Introducing policies related to air quality and reducing mobile sources of pollutants
- Introducing demo projects on renewable energy by testing various solar technologies and by introducing research projects related to energy conservation and risk assessment
- Enhancement of energy efficiency by framing minimum standards in order to achieve the Green mark certification
- Improvement of water efficiency programs by water – efficient home programs, recycling of water, submission of water management programs in cases of heavy water usage and introduction of water conservation programs in order to improve the value of water
- Introduction of waste management and participation in recycling and infrastructure support for recycling management
The Actions of Non-Government Organisations and the Private Sectors
In order to solve the clean water issue and environmental sustainability issue, Singapore as a Country was motivated naturally to introduce newer ways of innovation and to develop new water management methods like water reclamation and sea water desalination. The environment and water industries in Singapore have been identified as the main growing industries where the Government has committed a $ 330 million to fund newer projects related to innovation and capacity building (King nd).
Various partnerships between the Government and the Private Organizations have played a critical role in improving the sustainability of Singapore’s energy and water resources (King nd). The private companies have implemented the projects related to infrastructure in order to showcase their talents and to develop and test their newer commercial solutions to various issues.
The Government of Singapore runs a Singapore International Water Week where it can showcase different solutions for the green house issues. International industry leaders and experts come to solve issues, introduce new technologies and to introduce their past achievements in the context of conservation of energy and water. There were various projects which were introduced related to Hybrid Electricity Solutions with a local brand, Pacific Light Energy with a partnership with REC – a Solar Manufacturing Company.
The projects would cover the electricity needs for a 2000 – 2500 person corporate campus.
Australia has taken measures for careful planning of its population in order to ensure a sustainable growth for their future. The Government of Australia has taken measures to strengthen the environmental solutions for various issues as a response however I feel that the Government of Singapore has taken various initiatives by collaborating with many International and Large Companies in order to cover their energy and electricity needs (Productivity Commission 2011).
Research in Australia was conducted by the Social Inclusion Board and more emphasis was laid on the liveability conditions of the urban areas in Australia which has included financial and affordability conditions of the Country (Anglicare Western Australia 2011). Singapore’s context was a lot different where research and development was a lot stronger with the presence of Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore and Energy Research Institute. Australia has also worked towards developing a design and building industry which is considerably efficient in creating buildings in extreme conditions because of its weather. This has also made it collaborate with the other Countries like India, China and Singapore in order to partner with the International brands to develop a greater sustainability of energy and water.
Australia and Singapore have made their own regulations and policies demonstrating a sustainable model of work to achieve energy sustainability and water sustainability. The Governments had a commitment to achieve their final objective in order to reform their Countries for the enhancement of the communities and its people.
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