Primary Health Care Strategic Framework Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Primary Health Care Strategic Framework.

Answer:

Introduction

Australia's widespread medicinal services framework is under a significant pressure. Numerous professionals of the healthcare, policymakers, and government authorities share the view that despite the fact that the care related quality is high, the healthcare spending of the nation is unsustainable and is hence found to be a deplete on the economy. Another alternative can be proposed — one that sees the industry of healthcare as a significant contributor of the economy through employment, exports, GDP and innovation (Chaar, 2014). Australia can possibly offer its telemedicine and other other services abroad related to telehealth, capturing a market share of the growing medical tourism, and putting resources within the healthcare institutions and other foreign hospitals. In this report, we look at the healthcare industry of Australia and make an identification of the opportunities while competing in the global space of the healthcare by attracting foreign investment, maximizing the potential for export, commercializing the public schemes and talent within the private sector (DALTON-BROWN, 2016). Our proposals for a way forward for Australia may likewise have application for different nations where the healthcare framework is strong that are confronting challenges which are quite similar.

Contrasted with the health framework of other countries, the healthcare framework of Australia along with its outcomes rank exceedingly. Australia positioned 6th within the world during 2014 as far as the efficiency of healthcare is concerned, and was found to be at a rank of seventh in life expectancy. It reliably positions at the highest point of the Better Life Index of the OECD i.e. organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which measures the way natives see their social, mental and physical well-being. The excellent healthcare framework and high standard of living of Australia convey many advantages to most of the populace, including a more extended life expectancy (Day, 2008). Government information assesses that by 2055, the life expectancy on an average will be 96.6 years for women and 95.1 years for men. The nation additionally has low baby mortality, with the quantity of newborn child deaths tumbling from 1,264 in 2002 to 1,094 in 2013. Despite the fact that Australians are relied upon to stay dynamic longer because of better health, a considerably more established populace will unavoidably put more demand on the framework of health. An altogether more older populace will endure more incessant ailment and degenerative illnesses, and require longer healing facility stays and more follow-up care (Duckett, 2008). The figures of private healthcare alone demonstrate that clients having an age of 60 to 79 are the group that gets the biggest payout of benefits from the hospital.

With the retirement of the older Australians, there will be a shrink in the labor force. This will result in a less tax revenue to pay for the services related to health the greying populace will require. Indeed, even with the current plan of the government for increasing the retirement age to 70, the participation labor of Australia is anticipated to keep on falling (Dunphy, 2013).

It is nothing unexpected then that the policy makers of Australia have been on discovering approaches for Australia to keep offering a world-class medicinal services framework even with these difficulties. Generally speaking, the present view is negative, with economists and policymakers regularly alluding to the medicinal services framework as a burden to government and society, and human services spending seen as monetarily unsustainable (Frueh, 2015). We propose a significant alternative — one that sees Australia's human services spend as a significant opportunity (Naccarella, Buchan, Newton, & Brooks, 2011). With the careful management and right policy direction, the Australian human services framework could be a noteworthy supporter of the nation's economy. The division is as of now one of the nation's biggest suppliers of employment, and the fifth biggest supporter of Australia's GDP. We trust that it could contribute considerably more to the economy by drawing in foreign talent and investment, particularly in the R&D region, and by sending out the human services benefits in which it as of now exceeds expectations, for example, telemedicine, alongside the skill of its exclusive standard private and public hospitals (Naccarella, Buchan, Newton, & Brooks, 2011).

Opportunities for Economic Growth

There is a significant chance for the healthcare segment of Australia to end up plainly a noteworthy export industry and make a positive commitment to the economy, to the degree that it could help make up for the current and sudden decrease in the sector of mining. In accordance with this, the business gave the Australian economy a gigantic ride from 2005 until the most recent few years, yet it has mellowed as China's hunger for framework ventures decreases, and costs of coal and iron mineral fall over the globe (Perkins, 2013). Presently, with the fading of mining boom, Australia should discover elective export enterprises on the off chance that it needs to keep up its monetary and economic quality. And giving an exclusive care related standard to its kin, the Australian medicinal services segment is one of the nation's most noteworthy performing parts monetarily. Medicinal services are developing at twofold the pace of Australia's GDP. Contrasted and its provincial and worldwide peers, Australia positions in the main three as far as its private–public organizations, balanced private health spending per capita, and its capacity to draw in abroad medicinal services ability to live and work in the nation (Rajagopalan, & Elkadi, 2014).

We accept there are likewise various opportunities for both private and government healthcare to cooperate so that the medicinal services framework keeps on serving the Australian overall population and be a solid supporter of the nation's economy. To get this going, the private and public sector players in Australian human services need to consider their parts in the framework, especially by tending to the accompanying questions:

  • What sort of strategy changes could help the Australian government decrease superfluous spending, arranging for financing to support possibly solid areas like R&D?
  • How can private and government industry cooperate to follow in the strides of the highly successful education and finance service exports of Australia — and possibly help fill a portion of the left gaps by a softening sector of resources (Russell, & Dawda, 2014)?
  • What role can Australian media communications organizations play in creating telehealthcare — a territory where Australia as of now has created solid capacities?
  • How ought to the Australian government guarantee that it can keep on funding its maturing populace's human services or healthcare?

We see various ways that the private industry and government can give world-class human services to Australians, in the meantime boosting the nation's exports related to the healthcare and playing a pivotal role to stimulate the local economy. The techniques for fortifying the medicinal services framework would rotate around the three principle interfaces in the value chain of healthcare. The three imperative links are insurers, suppliers and care providers.

Care Providers: Tourism, Technology, and Overseas Expansion

Lately, the education sector of Australia has had tremendous monetary accomplishment in accordance with the leveraging of the capacity of public sector to serve trade/export markets. Education is currently one of the largest exports of Australia that contributes 4.5% of the nation's GDP in 2013. We trust that there are opportunities for the sector of healthcare to take after the lead of education (Rajagopalan, & Elkadi, 2014). Truth be told, there are found to be three clear parallels between the way education has leveraged public sector opportunities and capacity in healthcare industry of Australia.

Progresses in innovation and technology have made remote and distance in a practical and well known approach to think about. The quantity of remote students enlisted at Australian universities has risen rapidly over the most recent five years from 211,000 in 2009 to 302,000 in 2013. Furthermore, Australia's real telecom, Telstra, has kept on putting resources into its telehealth administrations. The organization as of now offers some of these services and is set to join forces with governments crosswise over purview (Naccarella, Buchan, Newton, & Brooks, 2011). Telstra has likewise made acquisitions and joined forces with local and abroad organizations, for example, red IT, Medgate, HealthEngine, HealthConnex, and Verdi to manufacture its telehealth abilities.

On top of having broad involvement in telemedicine, Australia is likewise home to a substantial number of specialists trained internationally(Chaar, 2014). The providers of care could use these specialists' comprehension of their nation of origin's way of life and their dialect abilities to assist convey telemedicine and telediagnostics to seaward goals. Australia is remarkably situated given now is the right time zone to give night peruses to the Europe, Africa, Middle East and United States. Truth be told, this is going on in teleradiology, with Australia giving night peruses to the U.S. and additionally, European Union markets. In any case, various elements hinder telemedicine turning into a feasible source of current export revenue. These incorporate professional repayment and licensure laws, and concerns around legitimate obligation, care related quality, and patient security (Chaar, 2014). There is, moreover, a constrained specialists' pool for the providers of care to draw form.

Australia’s Healthcare Trade with China

The healthcare providers have a colossal opportunity for growth of revenue through trade with China. The biggest trading partner of Australia is additionally rapidly getting to be noticeably one of the world's greatest markets for healthcare. This is powered by various components, including the development of China's GDP, the ascent of its white collar class, and the expanding interest for better access to quality health among its populace. Like Australia, China has a quickly maturing populace — projections show around 480 million residents older than 60 by 2050 — and it likewise confronts comparative difficulties on the ascent of perpetual ailments, for example, diabetes.There are different variables that make China an appealing goal for human services investment. The nation offers low working expenses to business, and its laws related to IP protection, once exceptionally feeble, are beginning to move forward (DALTON-BROWN, 2016). The Chinese government supports development and R&D and is quick to give better access to quality human services given its significance to the Chinese individuals.

The agencies are seeking to better understand how providing patient-level information to clinicians can improve quality. To this end, the agencies developed a draft national set of high-priority complications in 2014 and recently concluded a trial in four hospitals of this draft national set to assess whether it is clinically meaningful and useful, feasible to monitor and whether the complications are appropriately captured within administrative data sets. The findings of this study will be available later in 2015. The Joint Working Party established a sub?committee in late 2014 to investigate potential approaches to best?practice pricing, with an initial focus on the management of fractured patients (Duckett, 2008). Under a best-practice pricing approach, prices are determined based on the health care provider delivering a best-practice standard of care to patients. This approach has the potential to incentivise best-practice care and, if implemented, augments the current ABF approach where prices are based on the average cost of care (Frueh, 2015). The Commonwealth, Western Australia and South Australia supported in-principle the introduction of a best-practice price, provided there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate that it will deliver improvements in patient outcomes.

Although Queensland has implemented state-based pricing for quality for fractured neck of femur, Queensland opposes a national approach for pricing quality arguing that clinical and performance management is the responsibility of jurisdictions as the system managers. Tasmania stated its opposition on similar grounds.

National Efficient Cost

Through the Pricing Framework 2015-16 IHPA introduced revised ‘low volume’ thresholds to determine whether a public hospital is eligible to receive block funding. IHPA considered the underlying data to be sufficiently robust to include all activity in the low volume thresholds and not just the admitted acute activity. In NEC15 IHPA also introduced a new statistical methodology for calculating a small rural block funded hospital’s efficient cost based on hospital size, location and type (Duckett, 2008). These refinements to the NEC model were broadly supported by stakeholders and have improved the model’s stability and predictability within and between hospital groupings, as well as across years, and will lead to greater accuracy in determining hospital eligibility for block funding from year to year. IHPA has evaluated the impact of the Modified Monash Model remoteness classification on the NEC model and determined that it would not deliver a clear improvement to identifying costs associated with hospital remoteness in the block funding model and may have the unintended consequence of disadvantaging small rural hospitals in outer regional areas. IHPA is not proposing any major changes for NEC16, given the significant methodological improvements made to the block funding model in NEC15. In 2016, IHPA will continue to work with states and territories to improve the reporting of expenditure and activity data for small hospitals, and undertake further research to better understand the cost drivers of small hospital services.

Bundled Pricing Options

Queensland, South Australia and Medtronic regarded services or patient episodes of care as amenable to bundled pricing if they are high volume, clinically homogenous and with highly predictable care pathways.

New South Wales, Medtronic, Maternity Choices Australia, the QNU, Women’s Healthcare Australasia and Children’s Healthcare Australasia supported IHPA further investigating the feasibility of bundled pricing for uncomplicated maternity care on the basis that it has an easily definable starting point and end point across all patients (Duckett, 2008). The QNU added that bundled pricing for uncomplicated and complicated maternity care may incentivise midwife-centred continuity of care models which are associated with significant reductions in interventions such as epidurals, episiotomies and instrumental births.

New South Wales, the QNU and The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) supported IHPA further investigating the feasibility of bundled pricing for stroke care. These stakeholders as well as Queensland, Western Australia, Tasmania, the ASC, the NSF and Medtronic stated that this work must consider appropriate stratification for patient severity and complexity (for example ischaemic or haemorrhage).

New South Wales, the Australian and New Zealand Society for Geriatric Medicine, Medtronic, and the QNU supported investigating the feasibility of bundled pricing for elective joint replacement as it is high volume and the care provided has predictable outcomes for patients.

The Northern Territory and the RACP advocated exploring the benefits of applying a bundled pricing approach for patients at risk, or in the early stages, of chronic disease as it could lead to potentially significant cost savings to the health system if bundled pricing incentivises alternative models of care which lead to better patient outcomes.

Silver Chain recommended that IHPA consider bundled pricing for end of life care,
specifically the last 90 days of life. Silver Chain noted research by the Grattan Institute that between 60 and 70 per cent of Australians would prefer to die at home, but the majority die in hospitals (54 per cent) or residential care (32 per cent) (Chaar, 2014). A bundled price could provide system managers with the financial flexibility to pursue alternative models of care, such as community based palliative care which reduces cost whilst improving the quality of patient care.

Conclusion

Contrasted with the health framework of other countries, the healthcare framework of Australia along with its outcomes rank exceedingly (Chaar, 2014). Australia positioned 6th within the world during 2014 as far as the efficiency of healthcare is concerned, and was found to be at a rank of seventh in life expectancy. It reliably positions at the highest point of the Better Life Index of the OECD i.e. organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which measures the way natives see their social, mental and physical well-being

References

Chaar, B. (2014). Medicine shortages: Implications for the Australian healthcare system. Australasian Medical Journal, 7(3), 161-163.

DALTON-BROWN, S. (2016). Healthcare in Australia. Cambridge Quarterly Of Healthcare Ethics, 25(03), 414-420.

Day, G. (2008). Book Review: The Australian health care system. Australian Health Review, 32(2), 371.

Duckett, S. (2008). The Australian health care system: reform, repair or replace?. Australian Health Review, 32(2), 322.

Dunphy, J. (2013). Enhancing the Australian healthcare sector. Australian Health Review.

Frueh, B. (2015). Solving Mental Healthcare Access Problems in the Twenty-first Century. Australian Psychologist, 50(4), 304-306.

Naccarella, L., Buchan, J., Newton, B., & Brooks, P. (2011). Role of Australian primary healthcare organisations (PHCOs) in primary healthcare (PHC) workforce planning: lessons from abroad. Australian Health Review, 35(3), 262.

Perkins, D. (2013). A Primary Health Care Strategic Framework. Australian Journal Of Rural Health, 21(4), 195-196.

Rajagopalan, P., & Elkadi, H. (2014). Energy Performance of Medium-sized Healthcare Buildings in Victoria, Australia- A Case Study. Journal Of Healthcare Engineering, 5(2), 247-260.

Russell, L., & Dawda, P. (2014). Lessons for the Australian healthcare system from the Berwick report. Australian Health Review, 38(1), 106.

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