Preparing Budgets And Environmental Cost Report Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Preparing Budgets and Environmental Cost Report.

Answer:

Introduction

Purpose

The purpose of the report is to see if the new product will be able to generate enough cash balance at the end of each month to enable the company to pay for the following months expenses.

Scope

The cash budget is prepared for two companies, one of which is the manufacturer and the other distributor. Milbourn Manufacturing is the manufacturer and various budgets including production budget, labour budget, material budget, and cash budget has been prepared for the company for four months from December to March. VGL Ltd is the distributor and a cash budget has been prepared for the company for four months from January to April.

Limitations

The above mentioned budgets have been prepared on the basis of the sales forecast and the expected sale price by VGL Ltd. If there is any change in the forecasted sale, the planned budgets could go for a toss and the profits of both the companies may be affected. Hence, the companies should be prepared for any variation.

Cash Budget VGL Ltd.

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

Beginning Cash balance

$19,00,000.0

-$1,24,10,000.0

$4,96,90,000.0

$10,96,12,500.0

Add receipts

Cash sales

$2,24,40,000.0

$1,63,20,000.0

$1,16,02,500.0

$1,01,35,944.0

Credit sales

$7,29,30,000.0

$5,30,40,000.0

$3,77,08,125.0

Credit sales

$1,68,30,000.0

$1,22,40,000.0

Total cash available

$2,43,40,000.0

$7,68,40,000.0

$13,11,62,500.0

$16,96,96,569.0

Less: cash disbursements

Purchases

$3,52,00,000.0

$2,56,00,000.0

$2,00,00,000.0

$1,92,00,000.0

Expenses

$15,50,000.0

$15,50,000.0

$15,50,000.0

$15,50,000.0

Total disbursements

$3,67,50,000.0

$2,71,50,000.0

$2,15,50,000.0

$2,07,50,000.0

Ending cash balance

-$1,24,10,000.0

$4,96,90,000.0

$10,96,12,500.0

$14,89,46,569.0

Melbourne Manufacturers Budgets

Production Budget

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

Sales

2,20,000

1,60,000

1,25,000

1,20,000

Production units

2,20,000

1,60,000

1,25,000

1,20,000

Material Budget

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Material A kgs

6,60,000

4,80,000

3,75,000

3,60,000

Cost per kg

$3.5

$3.5

$3.5

$3.5

Material A cost

$23,10,000.0

$16,80,000.0

$13,12,500.0

$12,60,000.0

Material B kgs

13,20,000

9,60,000

7,50,000

7,20,000

Cost per kg

$4.5

$4.5

$4.5

$4.5

Material B cost

$59,40,000.0

$43,20,000.0

$33,75,000.0

$32,40,000.0

Material C kgs

4,40,000

3,20,000

2,50,000

2,40,000

Cost per kg

$10.0

$10.0

$10.0

$10.0

Material C cost

$44,00,000.0

$32,00,000.0

$25,00,000.0

$24,00,000.0

Total material cost

$1,26,50,000.0

$92,00,000.0

$71,87,500.0

$69,00,000.0

Labour Budget

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Hours required

1,10,000

80,000

62,500

60,000

Cost per hour

$36

$36

$36

$36

Labour cost

$39,60,000.0

$28,80,000.0

$22,50,000.0

$21,60,000.0

Cash Budget

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Beginning cash balance

$15,50,000.0

-$33,42,500.0

$1,87,30,000.0

$3,19,90,625.0

Receipts

$3,52,00,000.0

$2,56,00,000.0

$2,00,00,000.0

Total cash available

$15,50,000.0

$3,18,57,500.0

$4,43,30,000.0

$5,19,90,625.0

Disbursements

Material cost

$6,32,500.0

$4,60,000.0

$3,59,375.0

$3,45,000.0

Material cost

$94,87,500.0

$69,00,000.0

$53,90,625.0

Material cost

$25,30,000.0

$18,40,000.0

Labour cost

$39,60,000.0

$28,80,000.0

$22,50,000.0

$21,60,000.0

Overheads

$3,00,000.0

$3,00,000.0

$3,00,000.0

$3,00,000.0

Total disbursement

$48,92,500.0

$1,31,27,500.0

$1,23,39,375.0

$1,00,35,625.0

Ending cash balance

-$33,42,500.0

$1,87,30,000.0

$3,19,90,625.0

$4,19,55,000.0

Behavioural Aspects of Budget

Budgetary Slack

Budgetary slack is the underestimation of revenues and overestimation of expenses. When the performance of the managers is linked to the budgets, the managers may distort the information in order to appear in the favourable light. Like if the managers gets rewards for higher sales than budgeted, the manager would most certainly underestimate the sales forecasts and prepare a budget with lower sales forecast so that when the actual sales exceeds the budgeted, the manager could be rewarded. This leads to budgetary slack. Due to this, the budgets prepared may become inaccurate and the planning process of the company may go for a toss. (Hilton, 1994)

Participative Budgeting

If the budgets are prepared in consultation with the people who are responsible for its execution, it is called participative budgeting. Participative budgeting is more effective as the people executing it feel more committed and responsible. The various advantages of participative budgeting are:

  1. a) The budget quality is better as it has the expertise of the managers along with the top management.
  2. b) There is improved communication of the budget, improved acceptability, and a better commitment from the managers
  3. c) The managers have a better understanding of the factors involved in the making of the budget, hence this improves the understand ability of the factors.
  4. d) Ensures efficient allocation of resources
  5. e) Acts as a tool of motivation
  6. f) There is greater work clarity which leads to better performance

Even though this type of budgeting proves advantageous, however there are also certain disadvantages which are:

  1. a) It is difficult to have an effective two way communication between superiors and subordinates
  2. b) The managers may try to distort the budgets and get resource allocation in their favour
  3. c) The process is expensive and time consuming
  4. d) The participation increases a responsibility for the managers which may increase their stress.

(Tanase, 2013)

Cash Management

Strategies to Avoid Cash Shortage

A temporary cash shortage may arise if the expenses are incurred before the payments are received. In such cases, the company can employ some strategies to overcome such shortage.

  1. a) Take a loan – the loan can be taken from bank or any individual
  2. b) Delay payment to vendors – the delay in payment would make cash available for other business expenses which need to be paid for immediately. However, the vendors should be informed and convinced beforehand.
  3. c) Sell off investments to increase liquidity
  4. d) Collect receivables at a faster rate.

(NASAA, 2007)

Consequences of Cash Shortage

If the cash shortage is not looked upon immediately, it can lead to dire consequences which may even lead to liquidation of the business. The profits of a business may be impacted as due to cash shortage, necessary items required for operation of business would not be purchased which will hinder the production schedule and thus the company will not be able to meet sales demand on time, thus impacting the profitability.

Apart from the above costs, there are also pressures that a business may face with respect to its reputation. It may lose cash discounts, may be difficult to obtain further loan, forced to pay higher prices to suppliers etc.

(Shodhganga.inflibnet, NA)

Consequences of too Much Cash

A company should have adequate amount of cash to carry out its operations effectively. Too much of cash also poses negative consequences which is the opportunity cost. The company loses profits which it might earn from investment of such excess cash.

Also there is inflation effect which means if the inflation increases, the value of money goes down and hence the value of available cash decreases which is a loss for the company.

(Picard, 2011)

Environmental Performance

Table

Operating Cost

Category

Amount

% in relation to total cost

% in relation to total sales

Initial evaluation of environmental standing of new suppliers

Detection costs

$2,100

Testing for contamination

Detection costs

$28,000

Training employees (environmental)

Detection costs

$1,400

Inefficient material usage

Detection costs

$70,000

Total Detection costs

$1,01,500

2.5%

1.9%

Cleaning up chemically contaminated soil

External Failures

$2,60,000

Total External Failures

$2,60,000

6.3%

4.9%

Treating and disposing of toxic waste

internal Failures

$2,15,000

Operating pollution equipment

Internal failures

$19,000

Total Internal Failures

$2,34,000

5.7%

4.4%

Maintaining pollution equipment

Prevention costs

$39,000

Performing environmental studies

Prevention costs

$7,500

Revising evaluation of some existing suppliers

Prevention costs

$700

Total Prevention Costs

$47,200

1.2%

0.9%

Total cost

$41,00,000

Total Sales

$53,00,000

(Kaplan, 2012)

Strategy

From the above table we see that external failures amounts to the highest cost in total operating cost even though there is only one item of cost, followed by internal failures. Hence, the company should focus on reducing these costs. This can be done by preventing environmental waste production as no waste would mean no external failure costs and hence the total environmental costs would be low. Prevention costs are the lowest and if the company spends more on prevention costs, there would be less of both internal and external failures.

References

Hilton, R., (1994), Managerial Accounting, 2nd Edition, New York, McGraw Hill Book Company

Tanase, G.L., (2013), An Overall Analysis of Participatory Budgeting Advantages and Essential Factors for an Effective Implementation in Economic Entities, Journal of Eastern Europe Research in Business and Economics, Vol. 13

NASAA, (2007), what is Cash Flow and How Should We Manage It? NASAA Training , Reading 2

Shodhganga.inflibnet, (NA), Analysis of Cash Management, accessed online on 27th September, 2016, available at

Picard, R., (2011), Too Much Cash Becomes a Really Serious Business Problem, accessed online on 27th September, 2016, available at,

Kaplan, (2012), Environmental Costing, accessed online on 27th September, 2016, available at,

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