- The most frequently used blood test to assess the impending risk of hyperglycemia
The most frequently used blood test to assess a condition of hyperglycemia is the HbA1c test. HbA1c is also known as glycated hemoglobin that develops when hemoglobin combines with glucose in the blood to become glycated. The health practitioner can successfully determine the average levels of blood sugar in a patient over the past 2-3 months by measuring HbA1c (Inzucchi et al., 2015). This test helps to indicate patients with pre-diabetes or diabetes. An impending condition of diabetes will indicate a percentage ranging between 6.0-6.4% while existing condition will indicate a percentage over 6.5%
- Parameters tested in hyperglycemia
The level of glucose in the blood is determined by testing the number of carbohydrates which helps in the diagnosis of disorders such as hyperglycemia and diabetes.
Lipids are available in the body in various forms as body fats. It is very crucial to accurately measure the different parameters of lipids and lipoproteins to help in the diagnosis of dyslipidemia.
The concentration of proteins in the bloodstream can be used to indicate the presence of nutritional disorders such as hyperglycemia that is being tested in this case.
- Chemical reactions that quantitate the parameters
The chemical reaction below is used to identify the presence of the protein;
The above reaction produces NADH that can be detected spectrophotometrically. Proteins are composed of amino acids that and made up of a wide variety of functional groups.
Carbohydrates, on the other hand, can be detected using the Fehling’s test that is used to determine the presence of reducing sugars. This reaction can be presented by the chemical reaction as shown below;
Lipids show very little tendency to dissolve in water because they are made up of hydrocarbons. The chemical formula below represents a lipid.
Reasons for testing the above parameters
The importance of testing carbohydrates is to determine the glucose level in blood. The human body converts the carbohydrates present in food into glucose that is used as a source of energy by the body (Inzucchi et al., 2015). Taking this test for carbohydrates helps to determine the blood sugar level and thus enable an individual to adjust their diets if the need arises.
Protein is also broken down to glucose in a process known as gluconeogenesis in the absence of carbohydrates. The presence of proteins in blood is detected a few hours after meals. The test for proteins is equally important to determine the blood sugar level.
The test for lipids is important at least once every year for diabetic people. The test is done after around 9-12 hours of fasting to help in the detection of dyslipidemia. This test for lipids is known as the blood lipid panel test. This test consists of four main categories that include triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein.
Pathophysiology of hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemia is a sign of both type 1 and type2 diabetes. The immune system attacks the cells that are responsible for the production of insulin and destroys them. This leads to a deficiency of beta cells which results in a total deficiency of insulin. This causes a destruction of the pancreas islets that causes type1 diabetes (Bornfeldt & Tabas, 2011). This condition can also be known as autoimmune disease due to the presence of the anti-insulin antibodies that are present in the blood of diabetic patients. Furthermore, hyperglycemia may lead to type 2 diabetes. This condition is where there is a relative deficiency of insulin. This implies that the body is incapable of producing sufficient insulin to meet the demands of the body.
Bornfeldt, K. E., & Tabas, I. (2011). Insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and atherosclerosis. Cell metabolism, 14(5), 575-585.
Inzucchi, S. E., Bergenstal, R. M., Buse, J. B., Diamant, M., Ferrannini, E., Nauck, M., ... & Matthews, D. R. (2015). Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2015: a patient-centered approach: update to a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes care, 38(1), 140-149.