Discuss About The Position Statement Of American Association?
Diabetes is one of the epidemic diseases of the 21st century being the biggest challenge confronting the health system of Australia. Everyday around 280 people develop diabetes that accounts for one in every five minutes (Australia, 2013). Approximately 1.7 million people suffer from diabetes including every type of diabetes; diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, silent with 1.2 million known cases. It is the fastest growing chronic illness increasing at a faster rate like cancer and heart diseases. There is an increasing prevalence like 10% of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes with a percentage of 85% and is increasing gradually in low and middle income countries (Lee et al., 2013). This makes Australia rank 7th in the world for type 1 diabetes and rank fifth for incidence. Not only in Australia, are an estimated 422 million people living with disease globally (Baker, 2014). This depicts that diabetes rate is increasing and posing challenges for the healthcare system in countries. Therefore, the aim of the assignment is to understand the best factors that can work well to promote health for the Australians. A systematic review is conducted for the assignment to illustrate succinct and clear objectives for a new health promotion based on the gathered evidence.
Rationale for the review
The systematic review is conducted on diabetes because the high incidence of diabetes is becoming the burden of disease and posing challenges on the Australian healthcare system. This issue is important as diabetes is related to high level of lifestyle related risks reporting high blood pressure, daily smokers, risky alcohol consumption, physically inactive resulting in obese and overweight condition (Hordern et al., 2012). There is lack of awareness among the people regarding diabetes that is taking a heavy toll on their life. It is important to develop new ways for making people aware of diabetes and prompt healthy lifestyle (Chen, Magliano & Zimmet, 2012). Although, there is extensive research done pertaining to diabetes health promotion, there is scarce amount of systematic review done on new ways to promote healthy lifestyle and physical activity incorporation in daily life. It is important to understand the ways to promote awareness regarding diabetes among the people in the society. The review would help to promote better awareness among the people regarding diabetes so that people lead a normal life. This would help the policy makers to deliver effective future interventions among the target population.
For the systematic review, databases used are Google Scholar, CINAHL, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science. The articles were retrieved from databases published in English language on different health promotion practices on diabetes. The time period chosen for the systematic review includes 2011-2017. The reason for this period is to gather latest information on diabetes. The reason for choosing these databases is that they are reliable and provide information on variety of subjects. They offer full text articles on health and life sciences topics. There are complete citations for every article along with referencing and citations. CINAHL and PubMed contain a large number of journals along with biomedicine, nursing, science and health and other allied disciplines (Moher et al., 2015).
Keywords and search terms
The key search items used were “diabetes”, “health promotion practices”. Other keywords used were “diabetes lifestyle practices”, “diabetes Australia”, “health promotion interventions”, “diabetes health practices”. For the effective search, certain Boolean operators like AND, OR were used.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
The articles that were considered for the systematic review were related to diabetes health promotion or practices, type 2 diabetes, and exclusion of articles containing gestation diabetes or diabetes presentation with other co-morbidities.
Those articles that deviated from the main selected topic such as health promotion practices in CVD and diabetes, effective health practices to prevent gestational diabetes were excluded from the systematic review.
Studies about the health promotion practices in type 2 diabetes were included
The specifications of health practices in diabetes that comprised of WHO guidelines were also considered and included for the review (S?rensen et al., 2012)
The study design and research methodology were also taken into consideration such as cohort studies, randomized controlled trails.
Articles that were published in English language were included.
Articles from the year 2011 to 2017 were considered for the review.
Summary evidence from the research findings
After reviewing 10 articles, it was found that there is poor self-management and compliance among the people in leading a healthy lifestyle. They lack awareness regarding the aspects of diabetes in type 2 diabetes (Ahola & Groop, 2013). There is also lack of education regarding importance of healthy lifestyle, diet and physical activity to prevent diabetes and manage it in diagnosed diabetic patients (Powers et al., 2017). It was found that diabetes is strongly related to physical inactivity and unhealthy lifestyle. Pharmacological approaches are well established; however, it does not reduce the burden of disease as these are already diagnosed with diabetes (Bailey & Kodack, 2011). The main health promotion needs to be effective enough to prevent diabetes that is not being achieved at the individual level. The lifestyle modifications are required at the personal level for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (Al-Qazaz et al., 2011). Behaviour change along with the intervention delivery mode acts as the main barrier for the prevention of diabetes among the population. There is also lack of community engagement in the diabetes prevention programs that are conducted for creating awareness among the people to lead a healthy lifestyle (Nam et al., 2011). The overall findings suggest that the strategies are not so effective at the individual level to inculcate awareness among the people in order to prevent type 2 diabetes where lifestyle risk factor acts as the main reason.
Conclusions from the evidence
It is evident from the findings that there is need for specific health promotion intervention that can be effective in preventing type 2 diabetes and in preventing the related complications of the disease. High quality interventions are required and found to be most effective when healthcare professionals are practicing these preventive measures at the community and individual level.
New health promotion intervention
For the prevention of type 2 diabetes in Australia, effective interventions and improvement are required for the self-management of diabetes and adherence to healthy lifestyle choices. As diabetes is related to personal life choices, they need to be educated at the individual level about co-morbidities and complications related to diabetes. For this, community need to take an active participation in the prevention program through one-to-one sessions so that they can be engaged in the diabetes prevention practices.
One-to-one counselling is important by the community workers along with the healthcare professionals to make them educated to lead a healthy lifestyle so that type 2 diabetes can be prevented. This can be done by making lifestyle modifications like eating healthy diet, performing physical activity and employing self-management education interventions. Active engagement of people are required which can be done through implementing free health check and glucose monitoring camps so that the targeted population can be evaluated. It would also help to explore the factors for the non-compliance to healthy lifestyle so that they can identify and develop interventions accordingly.
Weight loss is also important to prevent type 2 diabetes and so behaviour change strategies or techniques could be helpful for the diabetes health promotion. Weight loss techniques where the community can arrange yoga sessions and jogging so that people get actively engaged in physical activity. Apart from this, the healthcare professionals and community workers should conduct one-to-one sessions at regular intervals and provide client education for the effective assessment of the implemented behaviour change strategies. Self-care and efficacy can also be empowered when individuals establish self-monitoring behaviour for diabetes management and prevention.
Future studies are required to support type 2 diabetes prevention and increase compliance among individuals in maintaining a healthy lifestyle including exclusive diabetes prevention in Australia.
Ahola, A. J., & Groop, P. H. (2013). Barriers to self?management of diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 30(4), 413-420.
Al-Qazaz, H. K., Sulaiman, S. A., Hassali, M. A., Shafie, A. A., Sundram, S., Al-Nuri, R., & Saleem, F. (2011). Diabetes knowledge, medication adherence and glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes. International journal of clinical pharmacy, 33(6), 1028-1035.
Australia, D. (2013). Diabetes Australia Welcomes Coalition Health Policy Focus on a Better Response to the Rising Diabetes Epidemic. Diabetes Australia.
Bailey, C. J., & Kodack, M. (2011). Patient adherence to medication requirements for therapy of type 2 diabetes. International journal of clinical practice, 65(3), 314-322.
Baker, I. D. I. (2014). Heart and Diabetes Institute. Diabetes: the silent pandemic and its impact on Australia; 2012. Diabetes Australia.
Chen, L., Magliano, D. J., & Zimmet, P. Z. (2012). The worldwide epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus—present and future perspectives. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 8(4), 228-236.
Hordern, M. D., Dunstan, D. W., Prins, J. B., Baker, M. K., Singh, M. A. F., & Coombes, J. S. (2012). Exercise prescription for patients with type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes: a position statement from Exercise and Sport Science Australia. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 15(1), 25-31.
Lee, C. M. Y., Colagiuri, R., Magliano, D. J., Cameron, A. J., Shaw, J., Zimmet, P., & Colagiuri, S. (2013). The cost of diabetes in adults in Australia. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 99(3), 385-390.
Moher, D., Shamseer, L., Clarke, M., Ghersi, D., Liberati, A., Petticrew, M., ... & Stewart, L. A. (2015). Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Systematic reviews, 4(1), 1.
Nam, S., Chesla, C., Stotts, N. A., Kroon, L., & Janson, S. L. (2011). Barriers to diabetes management: patient and provider factors. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 93(1), 1-9.
Powers, M. A., Bardsley, J., Cypress, M., Duker, P., Funnell, M. M., Fischl, A. H., ... & Vivian, E. (2017). Diabetes self-management education and support in type 2 diabetes: a joint position statement of the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The Diabetes Educator, 43(1), 40-53.
S?rensen, K., Van den Broucke, S., Fullam, J., Doyle, G., Pelikan, J., Slonska, Z., & Brand, H. (2012). Health literacy and public health: a systematic review and integration of definitions and models. BMC public health, 12(1), 80.