The essay presents a brief overview of the poor job design of Australia and it also explains the causes of dissatisfaction of Australian. It evaluates and measures the reason of poor job design. It describes how the poor job design affects the employees’ performance and efficiency. It tells the benefits of proper and adequate job design in an organization. It also explains the techniques and methods to improve and manage the performance of employees. It explains that how the companies enhance the morale and job satisfaction of Australian.
Job design is the core task of the human resource management and it is related to the requirements of the methods, contents, and relationship of employment in order to satisfy organizational and technological requirements with personal and social requirements of the job. Job design fixes the responsibilities and duties of the job. Therefore, job design affects the behavior and attitudes of employees. Job design also provides information about the qualification needed for doing the work. If the job is designed efficiently, then highly competent managers will join the association. Job design plays a significant role in an organization to achieve the organizational goals and objectives. The efficient job design improves the profitability and productivity of the company (Cascio, 2015).The various factors affect the job designs, which are discussed below.
Organizational factors: Culture, work nature, Ergonomics, workflow are the organizational factors which influence the job design. The company should focus on the organizational factors.
Environmental factors: Environmental factors also affect the job design and performance of the employees. These factors include the external factors as well as internal factors of the company. Internal factors include the employee skills and abilities and external factors include the socio- cultural and economic factors (Moran, Abramson, &Moran, 2014).
Behavioral factors: Behavioral factors include the various elements like diversity, feedback, autonomy and skills, and abilities of employees. These factors also affect the performance of the employees.
The poor job design affects the performance of Australian employees. Many Australians workers feel dissatisfied with their jobs due to poor job design. Sometimes employees get disappointed due to poor job satisfaction and they leave the job and they start to search the good opportunities in other industries.
Heavy workloads and stress: Heavy workloads also reflect the quality and performance of the organization. However, if the jobs are designed badly, then it will become the reason of high employee turnover, absenteeism, conflicts and other Australians employees’ problems. Some other factors also influence the job design like proper scope of job, full-time challenges of the job, organizational requirement, managerial skills, organizational structure, individual likes and dislikes, technology and control system.
Key reasons of poor job design and job dissatisfaction are discussed below.
Underpaid: Underpaid is one of the primary reasons of Australian job dissatisfaction. Mainly, Australian companies do not pay good wages to employees therefore, employees feel dissatisfied with their jobs.
Limited career growth and advancement: This also influences the performance of Australians workers and limited career growth and advancement does not provide satisfaction to employees. Poor job design affects the productivity and efficiency of Australians.
Lack of interest: A lack of interest is another reason in the workplace therefore, employees feel dissatisfy and unhappy in Australia. Workers want to perform duties and responsibilities which are challenging and engaging. Sometimes companies assign monotonous and repetitive work to employees then they get boredom from such work. It also influences the efficiency of employees.
Poor management: The management plays a significant role in an organization. The top management is responsible for planning, organizing, controlling of an organization and it is also responsible for motivating the workers. Due to poor management, employees do not perform duties and responsibilities effectively. It influences the productivity and performance of employees adversely. Managers with poor leadership and management skills also affect the performance of workers (Abdelhak, Grostick &Hanken, 2014).
Inadequate resources: In Australia, workers do not get the proper resources and facilities for doing the jobs. Thus, it becomes the main cause of job dissatisfaction of Australians employees. The pathetic working environment of the company also affects the job performance of the employees.
Lack of transparency: Lack of transparency increases rumors in the organization and it also becomes the main reason of dissatisfaction of Australians workers. It also demotivates and demoralizes the employees.
Perceived discrimination: Employees discrimination also influences the efficiency of employees and it is the other cause of poor job design. It also increases the conflicts and grievances among the workers (Rao, 2014).
Lack of role clarity: It happens, when incompatible and mismatch roles and responsibilities are assigned to two different workers at the same time. This lack of clarity in Australians creates tension and conflicts between the workers. It also influences the performance of Australians workers. After the various researches, it has been analyzed that office gossip also affects the performance of employees. It also influences the growth of the organization and it is the reason of poor job design in the organization.
Poor leadership from the top management: A manager motivates the employees for doing work but sometimes managers do not provide the motivation to employees. The aggressive and arrogant behavior of managers also affects the performance of Australian.
After the various researches, it has been observed that all these causes affect the performance and efficiency of Australians so it should be controlled by the organization. The excellent job design plays a significant role in an organization. The effective job design provides information for designing the organizational framework and structure. Therefore, it helps to prepare the organizational structure of the company. It also helps in HR planning, human resource acquisition, and development. It also finds out the number of jobs available in the company. An effective job design not only determines the jobs but it also estimates the minimum skills, qualification, and experience needed to various kinds of jobs. The excellent job design also plays a vital role in human resource acquisition and selection process. It also helps to search right person at the right work in the company (Paill?, Chen, Boiral &Jin, 2014).
Perfect job design reduces the risk of selecting the wrong employees to the job in an organization. It helps to encourage the motivation and efficiency of employees for doing the task. Thus, motivated workers commit for their best productivity, performance, and efficiency at maximum level. Proper job design also provides job satisfaction to employees and it also enhances the morale of the employees (Rothwell, Hohne & King, 2012). It also ensures the success of the company. It helps to reduce the conflict and grievances of employees within the organization. The perfect job design also improves the quality of work and it also provides support to maintain a pleasant relationship between management and employees. Positive changes in job design also provide help to change the belief, faith, and attitude of employees to make them positive for the association benefits. Therefore, all these things help to improve and develop the quality of work life. Perfect job design also helps in supervision and management and it reduces the cost of supervision. It also helps to implement the changing environment in the organization. It provides support to the achievement of organizational goals and objectives (Knowles, Holton III &Swanson, 2014).
Employment should be designed in such way that job specifications and requirements should be balanced. It should not be under loaded as well as over loaded, therefore; it should maintain the balance between authorities and responsibilities. The various techniques and methods available for perfect job design in the company. Hence, some of the important methods and techniques are discussed below.
Classical method/ approach: The classical method of job design is propounded by the F.W Taylor. In this theory, F. W Taylor focused on the balance of the motion, work and time at work. He designed the theory in such way that productivity and efficiency can be increased effectively. The classical theory uses three methods to perfect job design in the organization. The methods of classical approach are such as job rotation, work simplification and job enlargement (Knowles, Holton III, &Swanson, 2014)
Behavioral approach/ method: Efficiency and effectiveness depend on the behavior of employees towards the job. Employment should be enough to motivate the employees. The behavioral technique of job design includes some behavioral aspects of workers like task identity, variety, autonomy, feedback mechanism, and task significance. The behavioral approach includes the following method such as job enrichment, autonomous team; modify work schedule method and job characteristics method (Jackson, Schuler, & Jiang, 2014).
Situational theory: The Situational theory is different from the behavior and classical theories. This theory deals with situation and condition of the company.
Human resource management plays an integral role to provide satisfaction to the employees. In today’s world, Australian companies are facing emerging challenges in the form of attainment, maintaining, balancing and optimization of human personnel in the organization. They are responsible to solve the problems and consequences of the employees. The human resource management should collect the information about the employees related to their job satisfaction. HR managers should appoint a person who can handle the dispute and conflicts of employees at the workplace. Human resource department should provide the excellent and favorable working environment to employees for doing work. HRM maintains a link between employer and employees (Richey & Klein, 2014). Therefore, it should focus on the morale and job satisfaction of employees. The HRM should maintain the good managerial relation with the employees. It will provide motivation to employees. It should provide the fair and adequate remuneration and compensation to workers to competent employees. It will enhance the working capacity of employees. Now it is assumed that HRM plays a significant role in the company success and it will also provide job satisfaction to Australians employees. An Australian company cannot survive its business without human resource management so HRM is essential in every organization. It also reduces the absenteeism, employee’s turnover and job stress of Australians workers. HRM maintains discipline in the organization for doing work (Finn, 2011).
Human resource management uses various techniques to improve and manage the employees’ performance. They are discussed below.
- Set clear expectations: It is the important technique to improve and manage the employees’ performance. HR managers should continue manage and set the expectations of Australians.
- Train managers: Train managers provide training to new and underperforming employees. In this way, they help to improve the efficiency and performance of the employees (Ehnert, Harry & Zink, 2013).
- Use SMART goals: SMART goals stands for specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time bound. Therefore, it encourages the people to achieve the goals and objectives.
- Give timely and frequent feedback: Feedback plays a significant role to evaluate and measure the employees’ performance. If the employee is doing good work then senior managers give positive feedback of the employee. If the employee is not doing work effectively then it can affect the performance of employee. So the human resource management should take timely feedback of the employees (Berman, Bowman, West, Van Wart, 2012).
- Focus on morale: It is the integral technique to improve and manage the performance of Australians employees. Human resource management should focus on the morale and self-esteem of Australians (Marler & Parry, 2016)
Human resource management can take various steps to improve the poor job design and provide job satisfaction to employees at the workplace. The various steps are discussed below.
Provide a positive working environment: HR managers should provide the positive working environment to employees for providing satisfaction to employees. Therefore, it is one of the important factors to improve the poor job design. In addition, the company should provide some extra services to employees like childcare information, employee discount program, check cashing and money order. Thus, it will encourage the motivation of employees and it will also increase the productivity of the company (Card & Krueger, 2015).
Reward and recognition: Reward and recognition is a powerful tool to build morale and motivation of the employees. HR managers should provide the reward and recognition to competent and potential workers. In this way, the company can create a good working environment in the organization (Wright, Guest & Paauwe, 2015)
Develop workers skills and potential: The Company can develop the worker's skills and potential through training and development programs. Training and learning programs make employees more innovative and productive for doing work in the organization. Training and development programs play a vital role in an organization to improve the poor job design. Well trained employees are more capable to perform their task effectively. Well trained employees do not need more supervision, they can perform the task individually also. It will help to build a good relationship between management and employees (Saleem, 2015).
Measure and evaluate the job satisfaction: It is the never ending process, thus the main objective of the evaluation is to analyze and measure the progress and it also improves the performance of employees. It also helps to evaluate and measure the attitudes, motivation, and morale of the employees.
Encourage teamwork: HR managers should encourage team work and maintain cooperation among Australians to improve the poor job design in the organization. Teamwork is the biggest motivators to encourage the employees for doing work. In teamwork, people work together and they share their ideas and thoughts. Therefore, it provides benefits to new employees because they learn many things from their seniors (Guest, Paauwe & Wright, 2012).
Be transparent: Lack of transparency is the important cause of poor job design so HR managers should maintain the transparency in the organization. Transparency is one of the effective ways to encourage the employees for doing work and it builds trust among Australian employees (Kaufman, 2015)
Provide adequate resources: Human resource department should provide the proper and adequate resource to the employee. In Australia, many companies do not provide the basic facilities to employees, therefore, it affects the performance of Australian. In this way, HR managers can improve the poor job design in the Australia (Rummler & Brache, 2012).
Communicate effectively: Communication is the important key to improve the poor job design and provide satisfaction to employees. It will improve the productivity and efficiency of employees for doing the job (Van Tiem, Moseley & Dessinger, 2012).
Job satisfaction of employees provides various benefits to the company as well as employees also. After the many research, it has been studied that job satisfaction improves the communication in the organization. It also improves the attitudes and values of Australians employees. Proper job design and job satisfaction also help to find out the causes of indirect productivity problems. It will improve the poor quality of work and it also improves the effectiveness of organization (Bratton & Gold, 2012). Through job satisfaction of employees, the company can attain the organizational goals and objectives. Further, job satisfaction also maintains coordination and cooperation between employers and employees. Production and productivity of the association depend on the job satisfaction of employees. Performance appraisal is also an important key factor to evaluate the job performance of employees. It also enhances the morale and satisfaction level of Australians workers (Zairi, 2012). If the employees satisfy with their jobs then they give innovative ideas and thoughts to achieve the organizational goals and objectives. There are several HR practices also play a significant role to improve the performance of Australians. The various HR practices include placement practice, compensation practice, training practice, human resource planning, motivational forces, promotion practices, performance appraisal system, compensation system and recruitment and selection practices. All these HR practices can provide the job satisfaction to employees (Banfield & Kay, 2012).
Now it is concluded that proper job design plays a significant role in every organization. In Australia, many employees have dissatisfied the poor quality of work and inadequate job design. Therefore, HR managers must promote the productivity and efficiency of Australians employees. HR managers play important role in the company because they maintain a link between managers and employees (Marchington, Wilkinson, Donnelly & Kynighou, 2016). Human resource management implements various rules, policies, and strategies in the company. They play a major role in organizational success and progress. Thus, without human resource management, an organization cannot survive its business for a long time period. The Australian companies should make proper and adequate job design for the employees and they should provide job satisfaction to employees. A proper job design helps to improve and manage the performance of Australian employees. It also helps to achieve organizational goals and objectives. Every organization should use the effective job design policies and method.
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