Polypharmacy In Treatment Of Schizophrenia Essay

Question:

Discuss About The Polypharmacy In Treatment Of Schizophrenia?

Answer:

Introduction

Psychotic disorders are considered as a group of mental illness which causes severe impact to the human mind. It further influences the actions, perceptions, cognitive senses of the individuals. The report attempts to evaluate two major psychotic disorder namely Schizophrenia and generalized disorder. The report further concentrates on the symptoms, treatment and age group pertaining to these disorders.

Defining Disorder, its symptoms and the affected age group

Neurocognitive dysfunction is regarded as a key feature of schizophrenia and is identified during all phases of the illness. It is recognized as a chronic as well as disabling brain disorder. Delusions, impassive or disorganized behaviour, hallucination are few symptoms which characterize schizophrenic disorder. It has been noted that schizophrenic ailment affects both men and women at similar occurrences (Mueser et al., 2013). However, this disorder generally appears in men usually during late teens or early twenties in comparison to women. The inception of this disorder mainly occurs during the early stage of the adults. The conceptualization of this type of disorder does not frequently occur before the age of 16. The duration of schizophrenia generally persists for a longer period of time amongst the majority.

The article selected for the Schizophrenia disorder is ‘Psychosocial Treatments for Schizophrenia’ by Kim T. Mueser, Frances Deavers, David L. Penn, and Jeffrey E. Cassisi

Major Symptoms associated with Schizophrenic Disorder

Schizophrenia is regarded as a serious mental disorder which is characterized by psychotic symptoms such as hallucination; negative symptom like anhedonia and impaired cognitive functioning. The symptoms of psychotic disorder tend to fluctuate over a period of time along with several other periodic symptom relapses involving momentary hospitalization for pharmacological stability. The stability of cognitive disorder and harmful or negative symptoms is more consistent and integrated linked with impaired functioning.

Gender differences prevailing the Disorder

Gender disparity or the role of gender in schizophrenia have been distinguished since the onset of the ailment. It has been noted that women get affected to this disorder at postmenopausal stage on contrary to men who have been influenced at a greater extent. According to Eranti et al., (2013) it has been reported that out of 250 people affected by schizophrenia, rate of men is higher in terms of mental disorganization, hallucination and impaired cognitive hearing incapability in comparison to women who indulge in lower rate of negative symptoms.

Schizophrenic Medication

However, there is no permanent cure of schizophrenia yet it is considered as a treatable disorder. Risperidone also called Risperdal is a form of medication used to treat this disorder (Fleischhacker & Uchida, 2014). Recognized as a second generation antipsychotic which works in the brain to treat the illness.

For example, patients with schizophrenia were stabilized with an acute period of medication, where some were assigned with no dosage reduction, some with 4 weeks group (whose dosage will discontinue after 28days) and the rest whose dosage was continued for almost 5 months. After the completion of the clinical experiment, it was observed that patients with no risperidone reduction showed fewer rates of setbacks or relapses in comparison to the other two groups.

Defining Disorder, its symptoms and the affected age group

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is considered as a persistent and exaggerated anxiety caused by various factors of life with no relevant reasons of stress. Anxiety and tension at a tremendous rate can intervene in the daily lives of the individuals. Symptoms of GAD may include muscle tension, irritation, and concentration inability as well as sleep disorder. The onset of the disorder related to anxiety is mostly found amongst the older adults aged 30.

The article selected for the Generalized Anxiety Disorder is “Posttraumatic stress disorder in older adults: an overview of characteristics and treatment approaches’ by Maria B?ttche, Philipp Kuwert and Christine Knaevelsrud

Major Symptoms associated with Generalized Anxiety Disorder

The onset of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur simultaneously. PTSD is referred as a form of anxiety disorder, which has diverse manifestations in different persons (B?ttche et al., 2015). The coexistence of GAD with PTSD cause other illnesses that has common symptoms such as panic disorder that is described by frequent and sudden panic attacks, fear of socializing with people known as social anxiety disorder and OCD characterized by tremendous intrusive perceptions.

Gender differences prevailing the Disorder

Women are witnessed at the increased risk related to anxiety disorder. Women tend to have higher occurrence of anxiety disorder in comparison to men (Barkley, 2014). However, it has been noted that anxiety issues were linked with several other illness liabilities in women specifically in Australia rather than men.

Medication of General Anxiety Disorder

everal types of diagnosis such as supportive as well as relational and interactive therapy can be implemented to help reducing anxiety illness (Cuijpers et al., 2014). Medication related to mindfulness centered approaches and acceptance commitment remedy have also proved to produce effective outcomes.

For example, antidepressants that includes serotonin and other norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor are considered as most effective medication treatment for illness related to stress and anxiety.

Conclusion

Therefore, from the above discussion it can be concluded that both the aforementioned disorders have diverse effects on the lives of humans but at the same time can be cured and further reduced by proper medication. The report can has focused on various aspects of both Schizophrenia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

References

Barkley, R. A. (Ed.). (2014). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. Guilford Publications.

B?ttche, M., Pietrzak, R. H., Kuwert, P., & Knaevelsrud, C. (2015). Typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder in treatment-seeking older adults. International psychogeriatrics, 27(3), 501-509.

Cuijpers, P., Sijbrandij, M., Koole, S., Huibers, M., Berking, M., & Andersson, G. (2014). Psychological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a meta-analysis. Clinical psychology review, 34(2), 130-140.

Eranti, S. V., MacCabe, J. H., Bundy, H., & Murray, R. M. (2013). Gender difference in age at onset of schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Psychological medicine, 43(1), 155-167.

Fleischhacker, W. W., & Uchida, H. (2014). Critical review of antipsychotic polypharmacy in the treatment of schizophrenia. International journal of neuropsychopharmacology, 17(7), 1083-1093.

Mueser, K. T., Deavers, F., Penn, D. L., & Cassisi, J. E. (2013). Psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia. Annual review of clinical psychology, 9, 465-497

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