This essay outlines the concept of pollution, its causes and effects, challenges or problems faced by the people of Vietnam. Environmental pollution takes place when the pollutants enter in the natural surroundings and that harm the environment. These pollutants make air, water, soil extremely dirty and create problems for the human beings. The different types of atmospheric pollution are Air pollution, Noise pollution, air pollution, water pollution, thermal pollution, soil pollution and light pollution. This pollution affects the normal lifestyle of people, and these types of pollution causes because of the deforestation and emissions of the hazardous gases. From the last many years, the world has been suffered from this atmospheric pollution. Pollutants are generally the form of waste material and are key elements of pollution. The ecosystem and the balance in the atmosphere are disturbed by the pollution. The environmental pollution is rising day by day and also leads to the increase of global warming and human health problems because of the modernization and development of the economy of the Vietnam (Mayntz, 2013). There are basically two types of sources of occurrence- measurable sources which are easy to identify and control and another one is non-point sources which are very difficult to control. Environmental pollution is a man-made problem because it is occurred because of the human waste materials, hazardous gases, pesticides and fertilizers and automobiles. As per the reports of state government, the Vietnam is ranked on 79th position in the field of contributing to the atmosphere pollution and showing its bad performance because of its air quality. The main root cause of this issue is thinking or perception of the human being. As some of people have the thinking that whatever they are doing is not harmful for the environment and some of people have the perception that why should they take a responsibility as this is not their job, only the state or central government is responsible for that.
As we know, there are many types of pollution like Air, Water, thermal, noise and light pollution. But, In Vietnam the most popular is Air pollution and Water pollution. Atmosphere pollution is a very dangerous form of pollution and it took place because of the fuel burning in excess way, automobiles and many industries that throw out the huge amount of smoke in the air, which consists of chemical substances and gases like Sulfur dioxide and these chemicals pollute the air in the atmosphere. Sulfur dioxide is very dangerous and toxic gas and releasing of these chemicals also creates a problem of global warming and acid rain. Global warming increases the temperature of the environment and makes it very difficult for animals to survive. Usually, when a human being takes a breath, these dangerous particles present in the air enter into the human body and as a result increase in the health problems like asthma and lung cancer. A greenhouse gas carbon dioxide is the main pollutant or resource of warming the earth. When all the living things take a breath, they emit carbon dioxide and breathe in the oxygen from the atmosphere, but the level of oxygen is reducing due to the deforestation and the percentage of carbon dioxide is rising. Air pollution can be divided into two parts –one is visible air pollution and invisible air pollution. The survival of the living thing is because of the combination of gases which are required for the living things; the imbalance caused by the changing level of the percentage of gases can be dangerous for survival (Thuy, 2016). There are two types of pollutants – primarily pollutants are the direct result of the process, whereas the other secondary pollutants are caused by the interactions of primary pollutants like smog. The causes of atmosphere pollution in Vietnam are burning of fuels, gases from factories and industries, mining operations, emission of smoke through automobiles. In Vietnam, the Air Quality Index (AQI) measurement shows the alarming level of atmosphere pollution in Hanoi-based US Embassy.
As per the records of AQI, Pollutant concentrations in the air ranged between 114 and 159 during the day, then instantly increased at 388 which seem to be very dangerous for the people of Vietnam. The decrease in the air quality of Hanoi has been recognized to high traffic vehicles and industrial activities (Team, 2009).
Almost every person in Vietnam is using motorbike and cars for the transportation purposes. In the year of 2015, Hanoi had a 4.9 million of vehicles running in the city. All of these vehicles emit high level of fumes and smoke which is one of the biggest reasons of atmosphere pollution in Vietnam. According to the national environment report, in the year of 2013 the condition of Hanoi city is worse than in Ho Chi Minh City because of the increase number of private vehicles. Except vehicles another cause of the atmosphere is the emission of gases by the factories and industries. The manufacturing industries in Vietnam also decreased the quality of the air by emitting large amount of carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and chemicals into the air. There are many industries and petroleum refineries in Vietnam that releases the chemicals and hydrocarbons that pollute the air and leads to atmosphere pollution. Similarly, the mining is the process of extracting of minerals below the earth with the use of equipments that releases dust particles and chemicals in the air (Dinh, et al., 2014). The most dangerous gas is Ammonia in the atmosphere and that is emitted because of the agriculture related activities. The usage of pesticides, chemicals and fertilizers are increasing day by day on the plants and crops. These pesticides not only create the air pollution, but also creating health problems also. Moreover, the cleaning products used in houses and also the painting colors and supplies release toxic chemicals in the air and leads to atmosphere pollution. When the walls of the houses are painted by the colors, it creates some sort of smell that makes it difficult to take a breath in that environment (Fuller, 2007).
Moving further, this atmosphere pollution is affecting the lifestyle of people living in Vietnam. The problems they are facing nowadays because of the increase in the population, urbanization and development of industries. The environment and human health is negatively affected by the Air pollution. One major problem faced by the Vietnamese is vanishing of national parks and forests.. There was a proposal by the government to establish the two hydropower plants in Vietnam in Cat Tien national park has created opposite situation due the dams because these dams overwhelm the forests. The former park director of Tran Vran Thanh said that it is very important to maintain and establish the national parks and forests because it’s not a genuine thing that one destroy the forests because of the economic development. Talking about the number of reserves available in Vietnam in the year of 1990, there were approximately 90 reserves and these reserves covers the 4 percent of country place or can say about 3.2 million acres. These reserves are expected to be double in the next couple of years to avoid the atmosphere pollution. The deforestation and ruined plant life leads to increase the amount of CO2 in the environment and also creates smog, which is responsible for restricting sunlight rays from coming to the earth. Also, gases like Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen oxide leads to the acid rain and global warming. Global warming is also one of the serious problems faced by the people across the world. Global warming is basically an increase in the temperature of earth due to the emissions of the green houses gases like CO2, SO2 and Nitrogen Oxide. The increase in CO2 and other gases leads to melting of the ice caps that raises the level of the sea and create a dangerous situation for the people of Vietnam who are living in coastal areas of Vietnam. Furthermore, the Ozone layer Depletion is also a problem faced by the people. Ozone layer depletion is also reason that leads to the global warming and the ozone layer is the layer that protects the human being from the ultra-violet rays by stopping them from reaching to the earth. That layer is depleting due to the environmental pollution and this depletion of the ozone layer has negatively affected the atmosphere and people across the world.
Besides damaging the environment, air and water pollution has serious effects on the health of the human beings. Because of the low quality of air and drinking water leads to many respiratory problems like asthma, lung cancer, pain in chest, throat swelling, diarrhea, stomach cancer, and several digestive system problems. Air pollution also causes the skin problems like irritation and itching, rashes, inflammation etc. Similarly, agriculturist uses pesticides on plants and polluted water for crops and when people of our country consume these plants they become ill with the diseases like infection and digestive problems (Hays, 2014). For Instance, in Vietnam, there is a village Thach Son Village, which is situated near on the coastal area of Vietnam and this village is polluted by company Lam Thao as this company spread the emissions of gases and other chemicals into the air of the village. Because of this environment the people living in this village faced the health issues like liver cancer, lungs cancer and stomach cancer. This Village is known as the Cancer Village because the number people who died in this village are because of cancer. As per the records, there were 106 rural people died because of cancer during the year of 1991 to 2005. The Lack of the waste treatment system is the serious problem in Vietnam. Because of this inadequate system, polluted water is not purified before throwing it into the rivers or canals and leads to the breakdown of the ecosystem and loss of the biodiversity. For example, there is a plant known as Mangrove in the district of Can Gio which can grow because of the iodine and salt in the water and there is no other plants can survive due to the polluted water. There is surely no solution to tackle with this problem as it’s not feasible that these existing factories bodily shifted to a place away from the town. But there are some of the initiatives that took by the government to avoid this problem. First initiative is that the UN Conference on Human Environment assembles to research about the thoughtful changes that can be done to understand the relationship between human beings and his atmosphere in the favor of industrial developments and technological changes. Secondly, the World Health Organization also establishes an international network for controlling and looking for the best remedial solutions to avoid the air pollution on a large scale. As per the government study, here is an example of cities named as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, where it’s very difficult to take breathe because of the Air pollution (Hoang & Mueller, 2014). Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City is the tourist place and that is now become very dirty because of the air pollution. As per the Environment ministries study the nitrogen level in Hanoi was found 1.3 times more than the actual level and 1.2 times in Ha Long. The rise in the Nitrogen Oxide in the atmosphere increases the problems of respiration. High amount of NO2 also leads to lung infections, coughing, flu, and throat inflammation. The people who are suffering from the asthma and heart problems are at high risk because of this pollution. The major sources of air pollution are the industrial activities and automobiles in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This city is most crowded place in Vietnam as it consists of around 12 million people and around 890 automobiles are registered in Ho Chi Minh City every day. Similarly, they also found some high levels of dust particles that cause lung cancer, which is a serious health problem and because of this the people died in this city because of the cancer problem.
However, only some of the steps can be taken to reduce this environmental solution. Firstly, the government can take a step that upcoming factories should be set up at some faraway places from regions of the township. Secondly, the deforestation should be reduced and need to grow as many plants to avoid this problem. Also, there should either set up adequate water treatment systems in factories or banned the discharge of factory wastage to make the city free from the pollution. Thirdly, it’s really needful to find out how to avoid the harmful smoke from the automobiles and mining factories by the researchers. At last, the most important solution to avoid this problem is to create awareness among the people because it’s only the man who is responsible for this. A man should need to change its thinking because it’s not only the government responsibility to handle these problems. It is a collective effort done by the people living in Vietnam and also it’s applicable for the people across the world. There is a need to control the pollution from automobiles activities as per the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. One step taken by the Vietnam government is to set the standards for the emissions of the vehicles and these standards have been strict worldwide. Vehicle emissions testing centers have been established in the period of 2011-2012 and prime minister has also given his approval for this scheme. This scheme has given a great contribution in controlling the air pollution in Vietnam from the vehicle activities. Another step that can be taken by the environmental experts in Vietnam to reduce pollution is to promote the vehicles using clean energy sources, proper maintenance of the vehicles and there should be testing of the emissions of smoke of the vehicles every year before renewing their driving licenses (Tree, 2012). It is very necessary to create awareness among the people and responsibility of the people towards the environment. Moreover, conducting a media campaign also helps to raise the people’s awareness on the environment protection. In conclusion, Vietnam has faced many problems at the time of its development and air and water is the need of the living things either its animals or plans or a common man. Vietnam must develop the waste treatment system to prevent the economy from this crucial situation. Environment protection is most important or crucial thing and person need to emphasize on it because nature, plants and human life are valuable gifts to the mankind. It has become very imperative to eradicate the roots of pollution from our nation to live happy and healthy life (Hieu, et al., 2013).
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