Political Science: Democracy, Citizenship And The Global City Essay


Discuss about the Political Science for Democracy, Citizenship and the Global City.



As mentioned by Newton and Van Deth (2016) from the ideologies framed by various theorists, a state can be identified as a body that exercises exclusive political authority over a population in a specific territory. The power of a state is sovereign in nature. However, depending on the source of this power, the political system of the state can be formulated. Democracy i.e. the citizens being the source of the sovereign power of a stare can ensure “the best good” of the citizens. Here, for the successful completion of this essay the author has chosen a hypothetical country and named it “Illusia”, and suggested the electoral system with a choice for the parliamentary democracy depending on the multicultural social scenario of the country.


Description of the Country: Language, Race, Religions:

The name of the country is Illusia. It is a hypothetical country and named by the author himself. The population of the country is one crore. The sate is a multilingual nation. The major languages are English, Chinese and “Meluha”, a tribal language used by a certain indigenous group living at the northern part of the state.

The population of Illusia has a diverse socio-cultural background. It is a nation where the citizens come from different racial background as well. Here, the citizens are mainly divided into three racial groups. The majority of the citizens are the Asians and the brown people. However, the Europeans are forming a minor part of the population whereas the indigenous “Meluhas” constitute a negligible portion of the population.

The majority of the population is the Christians. However, a significant portion of the population celebrates the Hindu rituals. On the other hand, there are small percentages of people who are Buddhist by religion. Last but not the least; the Meluhas conform to their indigenous religion i.e. “Hulia.” This particular race consists of very negligible percentage of the population of Illusia.

The Electoral System, Senate and Parliament:

As mentioned by Clark et al. (2012) to uphold the political and civic rights of the citizens in a nation, representative democracy is one of the most popular political idea as it ensurs the best possible political participation by the citizens,. As mentioned by Kesselman et al. (2012) the success of democracy largely depends on defending the rights of the minority by the majority and its government within a state. As discussed by Shaw (2015) in a country where people have diverse socio-cultural backgrounds, it is the best to opt for a representative democracy. Moreover, Moran and Parry (2015) have identified, a country with large population can most successfully be integrated into the political exercise with the help of the representative republic political system. As discussed earlier, the population of Illusia is quite large and the people with different cultural backgrounds are constituted in different parts of the country. Hence, it is important to introduce the republic and federal democratic system.

As mentioned by Isin (2013) with the introduction of Federalization, the nations are opting toward more delegation of power. This federal democratic approach will be helpful for effective development and self-sufficiency of the provinces. As mentioned by Doorenspleet and Pellikaan (2013) a federal government is more efficient than a centralized governmental structure, as it shares the power to the provinces to identify and solve their local issues. Thus with specialized governmental policy more effective service can be provided where the nation is divided into separate provincial and cultural identities.

Hence, Illusia will also exercise local governance in every province. However, for serving the basic services of the state, a central government will be formed. As mentioned by Kamrava (2012) with the idea of “Welfare state” the centre will serve the requirements like social security services, army and the infrastructure. For providing a liberal, democratic structure, the centre will be governed by a Prime Minister who will be directly elected by the citizens of the nation to the senate. Moreover, the nation will opt for a parliamentary system of democracy. As mentioned by Shaw (2015) with a parliamentary government, less probability of dictatorship by the government can be ensued. With a multiple party political system, the government comes under a constant scrutiny of the oppositions, which keep the government debarred from degenerate into a dictator.

As mentioned by Kesselman et al. (2012) the parliament will be divided into two houses, the senate and the house of commence. As mentioned by O'neil (2015) for the most powerful participation in the state authorities, the lower house members will be elected by the citizens with adult franchise. The senate members will elect the prime minister among themselves. Thus, an indirect republic system will be promoted to ensure the rule of majority and the philosophy of establishing the “government of the people, by the people, for the people” (Newton and Van Deth 2016).

As mentioned by Clark et al. (2012) for upholding the diverse requirements of the citizens with different cultural backgrounds a multi party political culture will be promoted. Here, in Illusia, the citizens are from different cultural, financial and social backgrounds. As mentioned by Moran and Parry (2015) with local parties advocating the voice of every sector people the process of obtaining success for the parliamentary government can be ensured.

The parliament will be responsible for serving the military, infrastructure and social security services. At the provincial level, the state will opt for self-government. The provinces will opt for their own constitution and legal system. As mentioned by O'neil (2015) federalism will ensure a great level of political participation among the citizens. Thus, with political involvement, the citizens of Illusia will be aware of their rights and civic obligations.


Democracy is the most progressive political system. With globalization, the nations are continuously being more decentralized and liberal democracies. With a multi party system within the parliamentary government, the highest level of representation of every sector of people can be ensured. For a culturally diverse state, like Illusia, it is important to opt for democratic policy where the representatives of every stature of people will be ensured to protect the rights of the minorities as well. Moreover, the provinces with different sociological identification need a government, which provides them the accessibility of power to self-control for ultimate celebration of the democratic policies. Hence, it can be concluded that opting for a republic, federal, parliamentary government the best democratic exercise can be ensured in Illusia.


Clark, W.R., Golder, M. and Golder, S.N., 2012. Principles of comparative politics. CQ Press.

Doorenspleet, R. and Pellikaan, H., 2013. Which type of democracy performs best?. Acta Politica, 48(3), pp.237-267.

Isin, E.F., 2013. Democracy, citizenship and the global city. Routledge.

Kamrava, M., 2012. Understanding comparative politics: a framework for analysis. Routledge.

Kesselman, M., Krieger, J. and Joseph, W.A., 2012. Introduction to comparative politics. Cengage Learning.

Moran, M. and Parry, G., 2015. Democracy and democratization. Routledge.

Newton, K. and Van Deth, J.W., 2016. Foundations of comparative politics. Cambridge University Press.

O'neil, P.H., 2015. Essentials of Comparative Politics: Fifth International Student Edition. WW Norton & Company.

Shaw, S., 2015. Democracy in Practice: Ceremony and Ritual in Parliament. The Journal of Legislative Studies, 21(3), pp.451-452.

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