Policy And Program Evaluation Strategies Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Policy and Program Evaluation Strategies.

Answer:

Introduction

The entire world is facing the problems of refugees (Wrench 2012). The main countries, which are having a tough time with the refugees, are the European countries and Australia (Dustmann, Frattini and Lanzara 2012). When on one hand, the immigrants facing the problems in their country, on the other hand, the host country who are taking the refugees are also having a tough time (Wrench 2012). The main reason behind the problem is the effect on the economy of the host country (Dustmann, Frattini and Lanzara 2012). Hence, the research was carried to study the policies and the strategies that the host countries have developed to support the immigrants. The policies would have helped the host country to balance the intake of the immigrants and the management of the country’s resources. They also evaluate whether the immigrants will be beneficial for the country. Depending in a number of factors, the intakes of the immigrants take place.

The critical review of the research would be helpful to understand whether all the aspects of the research have been carried out properly. Whenever a researcher is doing a research, it is important that the researcher give special attention to the aspects like, the literature review, the methodology and the conclusion and recommendation of the research. In addition to this, the citations after the information are also required in the academic writing. The write-up will throw light on the strength and weakness of the research that have been done before. The write-up will evaluate the literature review, the methodology, the language used in the research, the flow of topics in the research. It will help the research to critically look into the research work and avoid the problems that have been identified in the write-up. As a whole, it will enhance the quality of the research work in future.

Purpose of evaluation

The purpose of evaluation of the report is quite clearly as it is mentioned by the author. The report properly mentions that it will focus on the current policies that are applicable to the immigrant coming to Australia. The report will further discuss about the application of the policies when it comes to application the immigrants in Australia. The purpose mentions all aspects of the policy like the overview of the policy, the discussion of the problems when it is applied on then public and the application that will help the government to overcome the issues. However, the main problem with the part is that it has been written in the introduction part. It would have been better if the purpose of the evaluation were mentioned by giving a separate sub-topic. In addition to this, the introduction part has no reference even when there is various information like the presence of the policies, which are being applied on the immigrants. It would have been better if the author more about the policies in the introduction part and explained the purpose separately in another part. Even if the purpose is mentioned under introduction, the author could have highlighted the part so that it visible at once.

Major Issues

Discussion of the literature review

The literature review has been carried out quite well by the author. The author has taken into consideration a number of countries that take the immigrants (Geisler 2013). The author mentions the ‘point systems’ that that is required to maintain a balance between the skilled labors who are immigrants to the country and the need of the labor market of the country. The author has differentiated between the selection and the settlement policies (Dias et al. 2013). The point system is a part of the selection policies. The settlement policies include the selection of the places that will help the immigrants to settle. As the populations of the immigrants are rising, the availability of places for the immigrants are also decreasing, hence the settlement policy has become important for the hosts country that will help them to make arrangement the refugees well in Australia. The ‘network effect’ helps the host country to determine whether taking the refugees will be have positive or negative effect on the country. By evaluating, the network of the host country will be able to understand whether they can take any more refugees or where they should stop. On the other hand, the literature review, reviews the problems faced by the immigrants in the host country (Bygate, Swain and Skehan 2013). There is discrimination in work and salary of the employees. Thus, it could be seen that the author has taken into consideration the perspective of the host country as well as the perspective of the refugees while carrying out the research work (Gillett, Hammond and Martala 2013).

However, there are certain gaps in the literature review done by the author. In-text citations are missing at various places, which are important for any writing (Silva and Matsuda 2013). The author has mentioned the discriminations faced by the immigrants at work but mentioning some of the examples, which could have made the writing stronger (Callies and Zaytseva 2013). Inclusion of some of the interviews by any immigrants who have faced such discriminations at work would have been realistic (Dias et al. 2013). The person could have then thrown light on the steps taken by the government for the immigrants. The policies that could have been related to the feedback of the refugees. In that way, the claim of the author regarding the policies implemented by the government could have been stronger.

Organization of the literature review

Critical evaluation

The literature has been reviewed in the context of the rising demand of the workers who are skilled. It has been reviewed that the demand for the skilled workers has been exceeding their supply. A survey has also been conducted in which China, the United States of America and Australia has been reported to be the major countries in which the demands for the best employees are increasing. A survey has also been conducted in which it clearly states that the demands for the low-skilled workers have been rising in Australia as compared to that of the high-skilled workers. However, the methods could have been used appropriately to determine the literature. The literature review has been written only in the context of a theory that in the context of the qualitative method, however there could have been proper incitation which could have provided a better understanding of the research. The literature review has been written somewhat in the context of the major contributors that is the information regarding the countries where the demands for high-skilled workers as well as low-skilled workers are increasing. The author had used the qualitative method where the person has investigated and used the words rather than numbers (Jaumotte et al. 2013).

Difference of the Report

It makes a difference to the way the report has been structured. If the methods were used appropriately in that case a proper survey with both close-ended and open-ended questions could have been conducted. This survey would help to give the detailed information regarding the percentage and the ratio of the demand for high-skilled and low-skilled workers in the different countries that are mentioned. In that case, it would have become easier to understand the in-depth information regarding the review. There could have been a nut and bolt information regarding the review and the methods could have been used. The author has given some information related to the policies that helps to increase the incorporation of financial and social process. The proper use of methodology would have helped to provide the appropriate information regarding the literature. The author would have provided some information regarding the quantitative method. He could have provided the information about the demand and supply of the workers in quantities as well as numbers. The author could have mentioned about the broad opinion from which precise methods may be derived in order to provide a better in-depth survey. The research question was necessary in this review and there was also the requirement of the primary data and the secondary data. The survey which is conducted should include the detailed structured so as to give the in-depth information. The author should have provided the survey by conducting some interviews that could give the information by collecting information broadly (Mackey and Gass 2015).

Literature review compared to the report

The author has basically used the existing literature in the form of a theory and has provided some basic information related to the demand and supply of the high-skilled and low-skilled workers in diverse countries. The literature review lacks the methodology in terms of quantitative method; it lacks the research question as well as the survey design (Hardin and Haber 2015).

Types of methods used

In this report, the qualitative method has been used mainly. The qualitative method is the method of investigation, which is utilized in different natural and communal academic disciplines which includes the social sciences as well as the natural sciences. It is mainly a wide methodological approach that includes many research methods. However, instead of using the qualitative method in this research the author did not generate any data from any governmental studies or any participant observation. However, the author provided the information related to development and practice as well as case studies. The author tried to provide a concentrated study of a precise case study. In order to analyze the qualitative method it is very important to gather data from all the sources that are available. The qualitative methods are mainly the part of the survey methodology which in turn does not influence the variables. It gives the proper information and gives a detailed understanding (Taylor et al. 2015).

In this research, the author has mainly used the grounded theory of the qualitative method where the information has been provided by considering the observation and the surveys. As a result, the author was able to provide the solution that in order to meet the demand it is very important to focus on immigration. The information regarding the failure of the European country to become the primary destination for high-skilled immigrants has also been provided by going through a survey methodology. The author has also focused on the fact that it is quite crucial to consider the qualifications and the skills of the immigrants to determine whether they are capable to exceed the demand of the labor market. In spite of using these methods, the proper in-depth information is lacking. It would have been more convenient if the author made use of the quantitative method. The author should have given more emphasized on the statistical, arithmetical as well as the mathematical analysis of the data that in turn would have helped to gain knowledge about the research. The conducting of the questionnaires would have been more appropriate (Tesch 2013).

Advantages and disadvantages of the method

As it can be seen that the author mainly took the help of the qualitative research to complete the research work. However, the qualitative research has its own advantages as well disadvantages. The advantages of using qualitative research are that the researcher can include open-ended questions to carry out the research (Miller et al. 2012). It does not limit the researcher to a set of questions and give the scope to the researcher to explore the anything and everything (Miller et al. 2012). The data collected through qualitative research have more strength than the quantitative data as it give the speaker the chance to talk about the positive as well as the negative aspects of the topic on which the researcher is carrying out the research (Neuman and Robson 2012). On the contrary, there are certain disadvantages of the qualitative research. The skill of the researcher is hugely responsible in gathering the information from the participants (O'Reilly and Parker 2012). Thus, there is high chance of biasness in such cases. The researcher might ask the questions in such a manner that the participants are made to speak out things that the researcher supports (O'Reilly and Parker 2012). When a researcher tries to carry out a research, there are issues of confidentiality (Neuman and Robson 2012). If the researcher is doing a quantitative research, the researcher can easily hide the name of the participants. However, in case of qualitative research, it becomes difficult for the richer to hide the identity of the participants as it need a lot of description. As the qualitative research needs a lot of description, it might happen that the researcher had to let out the information about the participants (O'Reilly and Parker 2012). The researcher has to then take the consent of the participants for any such revelation or it will call uninvited troubles for the researcher.

Evaluation of the secondary data

The author has mainly taken into consideration the secondary data. When the researcher is focusing on the secondary research, it is important to do a thorough research of every aspect (Liese et al. 2013). The author has made the secondary data comprehensive as much as possible. However, there are certain things that have been missed out in the secondary data. In the place where the author has talked about the roles played by the European countries in taking the migrants, the authors have missed out the citations. The author has clearly mentioned the principles that have been implemented to the intervention for the policies applicable while taking the immigrants in the country (Clark 2013). The difference between the European countries and Australia has also been mention by the author as far as the intervention principles are concerned. The author further talked about the discrimination faced by the immigrants after coming to the new location. There are gaps in the salary of the immigrants and the normal citizens. There are gaps that have been seen for the international and the national citizens. The immigrants had to face the discrimination as far as the behaviors at the workplace are concerned. The authority of the workplace behave differently towards the immigrants as they have migrated from another country. The authors have said that the Australian government has implemented certain policies that will help in ending the discriminatory behavior towards the immigrants of Australia. However, the author has failed to mention some of the policies and acts that been implemented for the immigrants and for the purpose of their protections (Mercier et al. 2013). There are three types of protection for the on-shore immigrants. Protection visa (Class XA) (Subclass 866) is for those immigrants who have arrived the country legally (Border.gov.au. 2016). Temporary Protection visa (Class XD) (Subclass 785) are for those who have entered the country illegally (Border.gov.au. 2016). Safe Haven Enterprise visa (Class XE) (Subclass 790) are for the once who have arrived illegally but wish to study or work in the country as they could not back to the country where they came from (Border.gov.au. 2016).

The Australian government has introduced the offshore resettlement for the people who are willing to come to Australia because they do not have any other places to go due the bad conditions of the country (Border.gov.au. 2016). The offshore resettlement is being divided into two categories:

  • Refugee category
  • Special Humanitarian Programme (SHP) category

These are some of the important measures taken by the government of Australia, which are missed in the discussion by the author.

The researcher has mainly used the secondary data to talk about the policies that have been implemented for the immigrants and the conditions that are being faced by the immigrants face after coming to Australia. However, the author did not make any sue of the graphs or the charts that would show the flow of the immigrants in the country.

Type of language

The author has made use of simple sand clear language while doing the research. The author has not made use of any jargon. As a result, all types of readers will be able to understand the topic of the research and the what the researcher has been trying to say (Iriki and Taoka 2012). However, there are some uses of colloquial English, which might not be accepted in the academic writing (Vygotski?­, Hanfmann and Vakar 2012). The use of term ‘also’ in the beginning of a sentence is one such example. The author could have used terms like, ‘in addition to’ or ‘moreover’ in such places (Bygate, Swain and Skehan 2013). It would have been perfect for research work. The researcher could use the word ‘also’ but that would be in rare cases.

Inclusion of technical terms would have been better for the work. The author has used general terms and words to make the readers understand the policies and the strategies used by the government to help the immigrants in the country. The author should have used some of the technical terms that would have made the write-up stronger (Richards and Schmidt 2013). The mention of the specific polices and the acts passed by the government could have enhanced the quality of the write-up (Bygate, Swain and Skehan 2013). The use of legal terms would have made the readers aware of the exact legal steps taken by the government for the protection of the immigrants (Vygotski?­, Hanfmann and Vakar 2012).

The presence of glossary for the terms that have been used in the research would have helped the readers. Once a researcher is carrying out a research, the researcher should have used certain terms that will be helpful for the readers to refer if they are unable to understand any of the term that has been used by the researcher (Iriki and Taoka 2012).

Evaluation of the recommendation

The recommendation of the research is not strong enough. A research requires a separate part for the recommendations. In addition to this, the conclusion is only drawn for research but there is no mention of recommendations (Andrews et al. 2013). Recommendation is an important part of a research. Recommendation helps the researcher to understand what are the areas that are left for future research works (Cohen, Manion and Morrison 2013). In addition to this, the recommendations also helps the reader to understand the exact areas that have been covered in the research and what are the ways through which the research could have been better (Ary et al. 2013). The recommendation is an indication that the researcher has understood the problems in the society or any other area and then makes the readers understand the ways the specific problem that could be solved (Ekman, Friesen and Ellsworth 2013). Hence, it is important the researcher to conclude as well as recommend. The author has drawn the conclusion after evaluating the policies and programs for the immigrants. The author has drawn the conclusion well by saying the most of the studies mainly evaluate the short–term effect but not the long-term effects (Andrews et al. 2013). However, the author mentions that there is a scope for further consideration in the research, yet the specific areas that require further research is not mentioned by the authors (Ary et al. 2013). Hence, there is a necessity of the recommendation along with the conclusion.

Conclusion

After evaluating and critically analyzing the research work, it can be said that there are certain strength and weakness in the solution. The author has written the literature review by taking into consideration the perspective of the host country and the perspective of the immigrants. The author has talked about the problems faced by the immigrants in the new country. However, even if the author has talked about the policies but the research has failed to mention the specific policies that will help in supporting the immigrants, the mention of the policies would have made the write-up stronger. The author has used the qualitative research. However, the qualitative research, is helpful for the research in many aspects, yet it has many short-comings. The author should have used quantitative research along with the qualitative research so that it would have helped the research to evaluate all the aspects of the research. The author has not used any jargon and hence, it made the research easy for the readers to understand. However, the author have not included any glossary of the term and not used any technical terms. The technical terms and the glossary is an important part of the research, the readers will be benefitted if they are able to refer to the terms to understand the research. However, the main problem of the research is the absence of proper recommendation. The author has included a conclusion in the write-up. The author has said that there is a scope of future research where the policies could be reviewed. The author has mention that the policies help in evaluating the short-term problems about do not solve any long-term problems. This is a main problem that has been identified in the research and will help in future researchers to identify the long-term problems.

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