People are the most miraculous thing that Creator gives to this life. God has been very peculiar in every step of "squeezing" each of us, every human being will have a distinct beauty that no one looks the same and it is clearly shown through appearance. Whether we have confidence in our own appearance? The development of life leads to more and more human needs, especially the need for beauty. Beauty facilities and services - plastic surgery that grows like mushrooms after rain. Cosmetic surgery has become a controversial issue than ever. In this paper, I'm going to indicate human demands leading to the trend of plastic surgery, the advantages and disadvantages of the issue and how ethical theory including Individual Relativism, Utilitarianism, Epicureanism support my opinion about this issue.
The beauty standard which has changed over time is one of the main reason for the developing of plastic surgery. In Asian, V-line facial trend with high bridge nose and light skin represents beauty standard. Asians women love smaller bodies rather than tall and strong body. The right arms and thighs are slim, especially the abdomen, absolutely should not have too much muscle. In contrast, Western people think that attractive women must have thick lips or apple hips with strong body. Those trends can be developed in a conscious or unconscious way such as social media or communication. In “Focus on Body Images Dissatisfaction” David Sarwer-assistant professor of psychology expressed his own opinion, “Body image dissatisfaction is pervasive in America. We believe this dissatisfaction may motivate many persons to undergo cosmetic surgery”. A good looking appearance will give people certain strengths, We can boldly wear charming clothes with our own standard body. We are extremely elegant in a suit when going to the office. We have the right to be proud of that, having the right to urge ourselves to fulfill that passion. It can be said that self-esteem leads people to plastic surgery and human constantly wishes to improve themselves as well as keep up with beauty trend by trying to slow down the natural aging process, change the appearance.
Cosmetic surgery is the way to act intentionally on the human body in different forms depending on the needs of each person. These can be major surgeries such as breast augmentation, jaw lift, butt lifting or minor operations such as lip pump, chin injection in order to reach "golden ratio” parts of the body. Cosmetic surgery is considered as "a life change" because it helps many people "from duck turned swans", more confident in life with a new looks. The concept of Utilitarianism is related to cosmetic surgery cases. In the book Reason and Insight: Western and Eastern perspective on the Pursuit of Moral Wisdom by Timothy Shanahan and Robin Wang, they indicate “ Utilitarian ethics concern the problem of how to produce the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people”(103). The philosophy of “ Utilitarianism’ is developed by Epicurus and his followers. However, Jeremy Bentham really laid the foundation for it and his disciple John Stuart Mill made the term “Utilitarianism” popular. They explain that the goal of utilitarianism is to make the lives of many people better and reduce suffering as much as possible (103). Take the case of Thi Le Nguyen Ngoc as an example, Le has a congenital cleft palate. This distorts her mouth, affecting her voice and pronunciation. Defects make her feel guilty, afraid to
communicate. Despite having talents and graduating from university, she could not get jobs because of her appearance. After the surgery, not only Le but also her parents were choked with emotion because the long obsessions were removed. The change in appearance adds confidence to her on the new journey. People who are unfortunately born with an anomaly face or an accident are not confident enough to communicate with others and socialize. Cosmetic surgery is actually a good choice for them to change their lives and reduce their suffering. To achieve pleasure and utility, many people decide to spend a lot of money for surgery, bear the pain through surgery and even go to foreign countries such as Thailand, Korea to perform surgeries.
However, plastic surgery also has disadvantages. Although the cost of each surgery is not cheap, the number of people performing cosmetic surgery is constantly increasing. There are even slogans such as "it is better to be artificially beautiful than natural beautiful." According to data from the International Cosmetic Surgery Association, the amount spent on materials and chemicals for plastic surgery in 2017 is 10.7 billion Euro. In particular, cosmetic surgery facilities which lack prestige and aestheticism also appears rampant in the market. It brings extremely scary consequences for those who do not have enough money to go to prestige hospital. Epicureanism is failed to apply in this situation because people get pleasure with new look transformation but impede others and even themselves with their pursuit. Some poor family will struggle with finance after their children’s surgeries. In addition, the surgery affects the health of the users more or less because there is a certain impact on different parts of the human body and seriously affect the menstrual system, causing necrosis, deformity or serious health deterioration for users. Many people are passionate about pursuing a beautiful journey and abusing plastic surgery. It can turn people into lifeless dolls with the noses, eyes or faces. One of the victims of the abuse of extremely popular plastic surgery may include the famous designer Donatella Versace - the famous fashion owner. Versace has a serious facial deformity at age 59. Abuse excessive plastic surgery and dieting make her body become pinched while her face is in a state of swelling, stiffness. And another case, 26-year-old Pixee For model in Sweden has spent more than $ 120",000 to perform more than 100 cosmetic surgeries. Furthermore, the abuse of plastic surgery affects people’s economy. Because the money spent for each "restoration" is not small, not to mention the broken times to be revised. Last but not least, abuse of plastic surgery is considered one of the causes of family happiness rift. According to the Grazia magazine study, up to 40% of women break up with their lovers after cosmetic surgery. Most cases of breakdown and divorce are related to plastic surgery because wives conduct lip pump, breast augmentation. Indeed, the overuse of beauty methods as well as cosmetic surgery that many people have received immeasurable consequences.
In conclusion, opinions about plastic surgery are the whole concept of Individual Relativism. People have different opinions and reason to and not to do domestic surgery. It is a good thing to know how to try to improve yourself and make yourself look better every day. Everyone wants to be better in everyone's eyes and appearance is an important factor in life. However, people should know the stop