People Performance Management: Managers And Employees Essay

Question:

Discuss about the People Performance Management for Managers and Employees.

Answer:

Introduction

Management of the people involves an act whereby the managers and employees come together and work in unison in planning, monitoring and reviewing the employees’ performance (Den Hartog, Boselie, & Paauwe, 2004). Den Hartog & Verburg (2004), advocated that performance management should be a continuous process rather than an annual performance review. Effective performance management should involve establishing objectives, evaluating the progress as well as offering coaching and feedback as a way of ensuring that the employees' performance and careers goals are met satisfactorily. Thangavelu & Sudhahar (2014) noted that the core aim of the people performance management is to enhance the effectiveness of the employees. George & Slabbert (2014) advocated that before the management puts into consideration the aspect of the employee development for effective performance it should ascertain whether the organization has effective human resource practices at hand that can boost the performance management procedure. Some of the human resource practices to consider include a well written and designed job descriptions, employees’ supervision, extensive employee training and development as well as favorable and supportive workplace environment. This essay seeks to analyze and evaluate how the management can effectively and successfully manage people at the organization set up. To address this phenomenon, this paper explores the steps that are primary in the performance management. As Askehave (2010)acknowledged, whether establishing new performance system or modifying the existing one, it is fundamental to communicate the steps as well as the purpose of the performance management to the company employees before any implementation. Again, it is critical for the organization to review the performance process on the annual basis and apply essential amendments were necessary. Before, analyzing the steps in the performance management, it is crucial to review some of the essentials for the effective people performance management.

People Performance Management

Effective people performance management process needs a manager's support regarding resources and time from the top management of the organization (Kong & Thomson, 2009). To make an effective performance management system the company should consider several aspects including the corporate board, managers, and employees. This will ensure the total support from all the internal stakeholders of the company. Some of the critical aspects that should be included in the performance management system are as briefly discussed below:

It should be specific and covering the wide variety of the jobs within the company

Aligning the employees’ performance with business strategic goals and plans as well as culture.

Be Practical and simple for easy understanding and use.

It should involve a collaborative process whereby the establishment of the goals and performance review involving the communication between the management and the organization employees.

It should be able to monitor and provide the criteria for measuring results and behaviors based on what and how.

Involves both the encouraging feedback for excellent work accomplished as well as constructive feedback in case an improvement is required.

Providing employees with training and development avenues to improve their performance.

Ensuring that the people work plan is in alignment with strategic plans and goals of the organization.

Establishing continuous communication between the management and the people as a channel of managers to communicate what employees are expected to achieve.

Managers should be able to spot and recognize employee achievements.

Trace the areas of poor performance and laid down the strategies of enhancing the performance.

Support the employees in attaining their job as well as career goals by spotting training and development needs and opportunities respectively.

It should support the management decision-making regarding rewards, compensation, and promotions

Establish a legal procedure as the way of demonstrating and portraying due diligent in legal challenges associated with vicarious liability and dismissal of employees.

Performance Management Cycle

Planning

Planning process is a collaborative step which requires the opinions and suggestions of both the managers and the employees (Schraeder & Jordan, 2011). It involves the review of the employees' job description to ascertain whether it portray whether the work currently being done by employees. At this phase, all the essentials required for the effective performance management system is established. It at this step where the SMART objectives and indicators are established. The objectives at the beginning of the performance management should be: Specific; Measurable; Attainable; Realistic; and Time-bound.

Monitoring

Tung, Baird, & Schoch (2011) noted that effective performance management considers continuous employee performance progress monitoring as the critical aspect. However, Brock & Buckle (2013) advocated that monitoring should not focus on the day-to-day performance of the employees. This is because this may lead to monitoring of the aspects that are meaningless in the employee performance management. Managers should focus on the results achieved as well as team dynamics and behaviors influencing the work environment (Ehtesham, Muhammad, & Muhammad, 2011). This is the critical step that determines the success or failure of the performance management, and thus it requires both the managers and the employees to meet regularly to assess the progress of the system. Some of the crucial aspects to be given consideration in this phase are continuous coaching and provision of feedback.

Continuous Coaching

Proficiency Level

Evidence

Basic understanding

Performance management at this phase entails coaching employees to address issues and concerns associated with performance as a way of maintaining positive employee contribution to the organization.

Working knowledge

The task of the manager is to coach, and it should involve demonstrating outstanding leadership skills through providing employees with feedback and reassurance when undertaking the new tasks.

Can do

As a coach, the manager should identify the strengths and weaknesses among the employees. This should be accompanied by the manager working together with employees to trace the methods as well as opportunities appropriate of maximizing employee strengths as well as improve their weak areas.

Exceptional

The manager should be endowed with robust listening skills. This aspect should be supplemented with the potential to provide honest feedback.

Role model

The manager should be able to offer support, guidance, and direction necessary for the accomplishment of assigned tasks and activities.

Providing Feedback

Proficiency Level

Evidence

Basic understanding

Providing feedback involves letting employees know about the results of the performance. Notes that for the feedback to act as a motivator, it should be frequent, specific and timely.

Working knowledge

The manager should provide both the constructive and supportive feedback. Constructive feedback aims at helping the employees improve their performance in the areas of weaknesses. On another hand, supportive feedback helps the employees to stay on the clear roadmap and focus on the achievement of the performance management objectives.

Can do

This aspect seeks to address what the managers, as well as employees, can do it to ensure effective performance management system.

Exceptional

Managers portray exceptional skills and abilities when providing both supportive and constructive feedback by demonstrating their understanding of the organization activities as well as recommending on the necessary measures which should be adopted to improve the employee performance.

Role model

Managers and leaders of the organization get the organizational objectives achieved through the efforts of the employees (Verbeeten, 2008). Therefore, it gives rise for the managers to behave in an exemplary manner so that the employees can emulate them as they strive to work towards the attainment of the company desired goals. Managers can portray this aspect when providing feedback by reflecting a behavior that they expect the employees to adopt.

Reviewing

This phase involves the reviewing the performance appraisal or assessment of all the employees' performance. This step provides the opportunity to highlight and summarize the employees’ performance over the period under review. According to Aguinis (2011) self-assessment forms the standard portion in the most performance appraisal. The usage of the assessment form and the appraisal plan acts as a guide for employees in assessing their performance as they prepare for the appraisal. Toppo & Prusty (2012) argued that this procedure is useful in identifying the employees’ gap performance appraisal opinions and the views of the manager. Similarly, Peter & Julie (2009) advocated that the managers should carry out a review of the performance management records developed throughout the year to ensure effectiveness in assessing the employees' performance at the end of the year. This strategy facilitates smooth addressing of the problems which may arise and complicate the performance appraisal. To facilitate the realization of the performance management results which can be embraced by both the management and the employees, the managers should put the following critical aspects into considerations:

  • Employees’ appeals process
  • Rater bias as well as assessment errors
  • Development of the performance assessment form
  • Competency profile
  • Clear rating scales
  • Employee training and development plan.

Employee Appeals Process

Despite the organization having a well-designed as well as implemented performance management system, there are scenarios whereby there are diverse differences between the management and the workers’ opinion on the performance assessment (Leggat, 2009). This calls for the management to establish a procedure to provide options for the discussion of the differences. Some of the options are outlined below:

Option

Type of discussion

Step review system

The disagreements between the manager and the concerned employee are sorted out in the presence of the manager in the higher rank. He or she may be the manager of the employee supervisor or if necessary the executive director.

Peer review system

This entails coming up with the small group that comprises equal numbers of the management staff and the employees to review the differences.

Ombudsman

This option gives the employee an opportunity to seek help from the member of the company who is regarded as non-partisan ombudsman.

Rater Bias

Ahmad (2012) noted that human judgment is prone to biases and errors due to his her perceptions towards certain individuals or objects. Similarly, when it comes to employee performance assessment, there is a possibility of the managers portraying biasness in rating employees’ performance. To the performance management system, effective assessment biases and errors avoidance should be the priority. Effective performance management should avoid the following biases.

Bias

Impact

Halo

Forms a generalization of rating the employee on a particularly positive impression.

Horns

The rater assesses the employee based on the certain negative attribute portrayed by an employee.

Central tendency

This tendency focuses on rating employees on an average basis.

Leniency/Strictness bias

The rater adopting this rating technique is more lenient or strict in comparison with the other raters.

Same-as-me

The rater rates favoring the employees who have the similar attributes as him or her.

Development of Performance Assessment Form

Proficiency Level

Evidence

Basic understanding

This tool helps to document and guide the consultation between the employees and managers in the assessment of the employees’ performance.

Working knowledge

It gives out the standard employee information about his or her performance.

Can do

It involves ensuring the performance objectives in the assessment plan is feasible for the employees to achieve.

Exceptional

Entails providing the updates of the assessment plan to all the employees.

Role model

The instructions provided the manager in the assessment plan should match his or her actions as well as the objectives laid in the assessment form.

Competency Profile

Proficiency Level

Evidence

Basic understanding

It Involves inclusion of problem solving, effective communication and team work competencies.

Working knowledge

Competencies demonstrated include assisting and cooperating with the team members to realize the target of the organization.

Can do

Aims at ensuring the employees are capable of demonstrating effective teamwork skills.

Exceptional

Managers can demonstrate unique skills by helping the employees to overcome the work barriers and challenges to realize success.

Role model

The manager should have enthusiasm and commitment in leading the employees to ensure effective performance management is achieved and maintained.

Clear Rating Scales

Rating scales included in the performance assessment helps in enhancing the assessment process. This is done to eliminate conflicts, ambiguity, and subjectivity and confusion that can hamper effective performance appraisal process. The simple rating scale can be used to address the following key work objectives:

Exceeded objective

Met objective

Did not meet the objective

Denotes the employee exceeded the expectations of the performance assessment

The employee met the target goals.

The employee performed below the bar.

Employee Training and Development Plan

Proficiency Level

Evidence

Basic understanding

Involves both the managers and the employees identifying the areas that require training and development.

Working knowledge

Managers are responsible for undertaking the employees through the training process to prepare will skills and knowledge needed for the development.

Can do

Entails identification of the activities that the employees can undertake.

Exceptional

Includes understanding how to plan for effective training and development process.

Role model

Managers should portray commitment and look more comfortable as well as effective when leading the employees during training and development process.

Conclusion

People performance is the critical responsibility of the organization. All the managers irrespective of the department should develop the essential skills which will ensure effective management of the employee performance. Bearing in mind the employees are the most fundamental resources of the organizations, the management should establish a robust strategy that will ensure that the performance of the employees is managed effectively. Besides, the organization should ensure that both the employees and the managers are involved in the performance assessment of the employees. This will ensure minimization of the disagreements which might arise between managers and the employees after the performance appraisal. Additionally, the raters should avoid the biases and errors in the assessment of the employees’ performance to motivate them and improve their performance.

References

Toppo, L., & Prusty, T. (2012). From Performance Appraisal to Performance Management. Journal of Business and Management, 3(5), 01-06.

Aguinis, H. (2011). Performance Management. Edinburgh: Heriot-Watt University.

Ahmad, M. S. (2012). Impact Of Organizational Culture On Performance Management Practices In Pakistan. Business Intelligence Journal, 5(1), 50-55.

Askehave, I. (2010). Communicating leadership: A discourse analytical perspective on the job advertisement. Journal of Business Communication, 47(3), 313-345.

Brock, M. E., & Buckle, M. R. (2013). Human resource functioning in an information society. Practical suggestions and future implications. Public Personnel Management, 42(2), 272-280.

Den Hartog, D. N., & Verburg, R. M. (2004). High-performance work systems, organizational culture, and perceived organizational effectiveness. Human Resource Management Journal, 14(2), 55-78.

Ehtesham, M., Muhammad, T. M., & Muhammad, S. A. (2011). The relationship between Organizational Culture and Performance Management Practices: A Case of University in Pakistan. Journal of Competitiveness, 4(3), 78-86.

George, R., & Slabbert, A. (2014). A Focused Analysis of Recruitment and Performance Management in the Import and Export Industry. Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies, 1(1), 8-16.

Hartog, D. N., Boselie, P., & Paauwe, J. (2004). Performance Management: A Model and Research Agenda. APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY: AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW, 53(4), 556–569.

Kong, E., & Thomson, B. (2009). An intellectual capital perspective of human resource strategies and practices. Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 7(1), 356-364.

Leggat, S. G. (2009). A guide to performance management for the Health Information Manager. HEALTH INFORMATION MANAGEMENT JOURNAL, 38(3), 11-17.

Peter, P., & Julie, P. (2009). The Dilemma of Performance Appraisal. Measuring Business Excellence, 13(4), 69-77.

Schraeder, M., & Jordan, J. (2011). Managing performance. Journal for Quality 7 Participation, 34(2), 4-10.

Thangavelu, A., & Sudhahar, C. (2014). Performance Management Challenges in IT Industry – An Overview. Global Journal For Research Analysis, 3(2), 98-100.

Tung, A., Baird, K., & Schoch, H. P. (2011). Factors influencing the effectiveness of performance measurement systems. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 31(12), 1287-1310.

Verbeeten, F. H. (2008). Performance management practices in public sector organizations. Impact on performance. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 21(3), 427-454.

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