A team referred to as the group of people working coherently for a common goal. On the other hand, a group can describe the core part of social life where two or more integrate. The definition has an idea of bringing some elements together; relationships, networking, and involvement of individuals. Both in working teams and groups, members are driven by common goals and share responsibility for the team’s and organization’s success (Gregory Moorlead, 2010). Although the terms used in the organization, they seem to be different. For an instant, groups differ from teams in that; team requires to have define task to achieve their set goal while the groups do not a specific target. Other differentiating factors include the purpose, the structure, both internal and external processes. However, work team and groups may have shared characteristics that give them definition (Robbins, 2014). They include the composition of the two must have two or more people; members exist to perform the organizational role, have mutual interest, portray workflow and end results, members joins by restrictions of the team, and policies.
In organization system, individual are connected to other persons to create a team, whereas a team nested in a large wired multilevel system. The hierarchy helps the organization to use many different levels-teams to get the meaning of groups. It is also imperative to consider time factor as a crucial feature of the group. (Correspondence, 2013)
Work teams and groups are as mutual dependent collections of persons who share common end and responsibility for specific outcomes in future for their organizations. Work teams have been said to play a pivotal role in the management transformation, paradigm shift, and corporate renaissance. It has been evident that organizations use multi-level teams for all development tasks. In modern organizations, it has pointed out how they have adapted to new technologies that allow small work groups to take obligation for the whole products (Oliver Strohm, 2016). For an organization to thrive it must feature in the following criteria: the individuals must commit to a common goal, group members must have specific respective roles and responsibilities, the team must develop a reliable communication structure that fosters information sharing and the presence of a sense of mutual accountability. (Gregory Moorlead, 2010)
In exploration and developing the critical capabilities in organizations and groups, in this paper, the discussion tends to look on the two facets of models and applications for the effectiveness of the teams and groups.
Models of Teams and Groups
There are many varieties of models for group development and effectiveness of the team. Among them include:
In this model the team members first get to know each other. They begin to initiate social changes and try to develop ways to have a productive relationship. The motive of the individual behavior drives away from controversies and conflicts. Serious matter discusses and people focus on agendas. Members also gather information about the scope of the task. (Moreland R L, 2011)
Individuals in this stage, remain with each other at an interval which maintains group cohesiveness. Petty issues are not addressed for fear of group members to break first since they are always suspicious. Team members focus on the role each one will pursue. The conflict in the group will mainly depend on culture and organization. (D, 2008)
At this level, the individuals become more cohesive. Members evolve the functions that individual will play in the effectiveness of targeting the goal of the team. People feel that they own the part of the cohesive group. Members listen to each other, appreciate and support and assist each other to impeach pre-consumed views. They perform various role such as leader, researcher, and the team thinks tank. (Woodman R W, 2010)
It is hard for the many groups to reach to this stage. It is known for members being interdependent. Though hard to attain to this stage, members’ works tirelessly to achieve the objectives defined in storming stage. Identity, loyalty, and morale of the members is very high. (Moreland R L, 2011)
This phase marks the completion and disengagement of the members who translate individuals to proceed to other projects. Team members will be proud of greatness in the group. Members will always associate themselves with the success of the team. (Woodman R W, 2010)
Application of Work Teams and Groups.
Groups of an expert such as researchers, engineers, and designers, for example, work together on assigned project. The expert may have other roles of innovation, searching information, broad autonomy, group energizers, and orienteers to sustain team life span (Robert P Gephet, 2010). The performance of these experts may be hard to understand due to their value of their output.
Quality circles and involving the employees into groups have been common in many of the organizations. The circles have been of help and play a vital role in workers participation. The members of the organizations become more aggressive, recognition seeker and dominate to the achieving of the goals. Quality control circles define the employees as the key player to identify opportunity for the easy thriving of the team. The team members also operate in groups and explore ways to improve customer service. (Robbins, 2014)
In production and service, units usually require knowledge of technology. The technology enhances assembly, maintenance, sales, and others. In group support for an instant, it consists team members to work together full-time to encourage, harmonize, and give standard setting. The members serve the team with freedom to make a decision on the specialization and division of labor (Rentsch, 2013). A good example is in vehicle assembly, a group of employees assemble and install parts of the vehicle. The team elect their leaders and assign them tasks to perform.
In summary, the models and applications of teams and groups assess the organization in different facets. The models emphasize on group norms such carryover behavior from previous groups and significant events which set the pace of the organization. Group cohesiveness lead success of the team.
Tools Undertaken During the Workshops
Belbin’s Team Role
Belbin emphasized three categories of team roles. He then explained how to shape team role by certain patterns of behavior which are attributed naturally by the different personality types found among people at work (M, 2010). The team roles are:
Action Oriented Roles
It further has various categories. Shaper who mainly challenges the team to improve, implementer ensure all ideas put into action, and completer ensures completion of the project of the team.
People Oriented Roles
They include coordinators chairs the team, team worker to enhance cooperation and resource investigator who explores and identifies opportunity elsewhere.
The team members include the plant who act as the think tank of the team. Monitor evaluators to analyze and critically evaluate ideas that members present. Specialist, who gives specialized skills to accomplish the goal.
The Big Five Factor
The qualities yield to effective collaboration, enhance accountability, togetherness, efficient thinking and mobilizes new approaches and ideas. The five factors include;
Extroversion is mostly associated with sales experts or public relations personnel as they need to show a high level of social interaction skills and assertiveness.
The factor of Agreeableness requires members to be cooperative and trusting. The cooperativeness brings ideal in teamwork situations through sharing information and nurturing supportive culture.
Team members embrace conscientiousness which translates responsible behavior and dependability for the achievement of the targeted goal.
The quality endorses that the members are focused on the task of the group, therefore, needs security and real personal drive to impeach anxieties and no-confident attitude.
Openness to Experience
Openness to experience in teams is highly needed because members are expected to show dynamic in their thinking, originality, and they must portray eagerness to learn and explore new kinds of stuff. (Tomaz Kern, 2011)
Johari Window Model
Johari Window approach is used to assess the employees and employers relationship and improve self-awareness within working organizations. The model consists of four areas.
Known quadrant which involves information about members, behavior, attitude feeling, emotion, skills and views.
Blind-self-quadrant tries to seek feedback from team members to remove the unknowns
Hidden self-quadrant describe relevant information and feelings which are avoided and in a real sense should be disclosed and exposed.
Unknown self-quadrant contain passive abilities, skills, emotions and information that are familiar to a team member(s). (David Ulrich, 2014)
The above tools have some similarities and differences into the functionality of teams and groups. All of the tools tries to identify team members, searching knowledge and technical expertise, working for a team with similar goals and emphasizes diversity and qualitative nature of the team. On the other hand, the three tools show weaknesses too. For an instant, all addresses team strength which on hand translated as detrimental due to members competes instead of co-operating. The tools also do not solve the solution to the emergence of any conflict. The tools miss to point out a suggestion on an absence of trust among the team members.
Areas of Improvement
Work groups and teams are embracing many new approaches. Such methods can lead to team improvement by providing alternative resources needed for continuity as an organization. Leaders must provide a lee-way to vulnerability- role modeling that creates character boundaries. The boundaries will impeach problem of misinformation, and serve as a vessel to connect to other teams, customers and competitors. (Tagliere, 2012)
Teams need to employ team development strategy. The approach enhances new ways of running the organization. Team leaders need to develop accountability- a culture of openness among and between the members of the team. Leaders must set the tone and focus of results.
Workgroups require interrelationship framework. Team leaders must evaluate their corporate role to ensure members are comfortable with the prospect of decision making.
Organization culture which reflects values and norms of the organization. Values that contribute innovation and sharing ideas may enhance the success of the team (John J Gabarro, 2012). It has been noted that many success organization has similar cultures. For an instant, the new working team may look to the abroad values and norms. Work teams that focus on self-management, values consistent with group autonomy may lead to team effectiveness.
Timely feedback on performance will overcome team dysfunction. The leaders must portray restraints-balancing the desire to protect members from harsh organization environment. The condition will detract members to reach to their leaders in case of giving feedback. Performance feedback requires a system that is reliable at all time. The systems can be workable in teams with much repetition, short cycles of members and measurable results. Such system includes manufacturing teams and assembly crews (Cunmines T G, 2009). Performance feedback fosters the use of goal setting and good feedback with rewards that auger effectiveness and satisfaction of teams. Most of the time, strong team leaders improve accountability gap, leaving themselves as the only discipline source- thus team members respond to the manager. One of the best approaches to losing trust is to conceal vulnerability to manipulate emotion of others. The method will loosen the barriers of the junior members to reach to the senior staffs. (Robbins, 2014)
The realistic plan is therefore required to draw the line of improvement on knowledge and skills. It can be effective if the organizational leaders can take charge to re-plan on works teams for better realization of the targeted goals. The appropriate approaches can range from paradigm shift to the organization chart as follows: (Mawhinney, 2012)
Mission clarity. Leaders must be objective on what is entails expectations concerning output of the team goal
Rewards and recognition. It is imperative for the organization to motivate the team members with performance appraisal and promotion. Recognize the team members who work extra and who take risks.
Keep on learning/ training on skills development. An approach to the training concerning technical expertise is known as cross-training. The leaders learn new skills in teams whose team members can exchange roles. Learning also enhances productivity.
Leadership must build commitment merely in organization vision and values. Team communication should favor every member.
Leaders need to welcome innovativeness from inspiring members. Enthusiastic leaders set goals, priorities, and roles for their teams.
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