Payload design for cansat to measure the density of dust particles. Essay

Payload design for Cansat to measure the density of Dust Particles.

Kartik Mete

Electronics and Telecommunications

G.H.Raisoni College of Engineering

Nagpur, India

[email protected]

Jitendra Patel

Electronics and Telecommunications

G.H.Raisoni College of Engineering

Nagpur, India

[email protected]

Dr Mahendra Gaikwad

Research Professor

G.H.Raisoni College of Engineering

Nagpur, India

[email protected]

Abstract—CANSAT is a device which is used to learn modern-day space technology and deal with the basic challenges that can be countered during the real space vehicle launching mission. The payload is designed to carry out specific operations and thus is different for different cansats. The payload used for the measuring the density of dust particle present in the atmosphere. Keywords—Payload, Cansat, Dust sensor, Particulate Matter, Battery .

I. Introduction

Now a day it is costly to send spacecraft in the space, for this purpose Cansat is used to teach how the spacecraft will work in earth’s atmosphere. A Cansat is a sounding rocket to teach the space technology. Cansat is basically a satellite which has to build in small size as like soda can having a mass below 350gm. CanSats are used to teach space technology, because of their inexpensive price and small volume. Our mission is to make a payload design to measure the density of dust particle present in the atmosphere. At present, there is no such payload design for the dust particles. Dust particle

There are various components present in the Cansat divided into category 1. Main Elements 2. Secondary Elements

1. Main Elements: It consists of a battery, trans- receiver, microprocessor.

2. Secondary Elements: It consists of various sensor components like a barometer, thermometer, GPS module, accelerometer, dust sensor, etc.

Dust particles present in the environment are the main source of Global Warming and its presence is hazardous for health. Thus if we can know the exact density of dust particles present in the environment then we can take several preventive measures to reduce it and hence keep our environment clean.

Our main aim is to do something for our future generations to come so that they may get a clean and healthy environment. If by using knowledge of electronics and telecommunication we can solve this major issue then it will be a great achievement. We are thus focusing on the Dust particle count so that we can get the idea of the current scenario and we can take eco-friendly steps to counter it.

There are several steps to take sensor data to our computer screen. Firstly we do all the necessary required connections of our sensor i.e. dust sensor and altitude sensor with boards such as Arduino, Arduino UNO or Node MCU. After that, we will require an Arduino software where will write code for taking sensor data. Then on ThingSpeak, we will create one channel with all the specifications required and we will provide Write API key in our code written in Arduino software.

The code must also contain information about the wifi that we are connected with so that by using the internet our data can be written on the ThingSpeak interface. The code in Arduino is verified and compiled after selecting the correct ports. Once the code is running successfully we can get the data on ThingSpeak in graphical form.

II. Ease of Use

A. Small in size and Weight

The CANSAT has several parameters constant such as its weight must not exceed 350 grams and its size is of typical SODA CAN, this gives CANSAT advantage over other space technologies used. Because of its small size and less weight, it is easy to carry a CANSAT up to a height of a few hundred miles and can perform the desired operation.

B. Easy to carry out basic operations

The CANSAT design is the same for every different operation but the payload design varies according to the specific operation. Thus, the same CANSAT can be used to carry out different operations by changing the payload carried inside it.

C. Safe landing

The CANSAT has parachuted. It comes out when the rocket reaches its maximum height and CANSAT is thrown out of it, as the CANSAT is ejected out it starts its journey of a few minutes before reaching to the ground. Thus, a parachute is helpful in safe landing of CANSAT and hence can be used again and again. The better the design of parachute the larger the time required for it’s landing, and we can collect a large number of readings.

III. Working

BASIC OPERATION:-

The CanSat is then launched to an altitude of a few hundred meters by a rocket or dropped from a platform, a drone or captive balloon, and its mission begins after it is thrown and till it lands safely to the ground.

A. Dust Particle Sensor:-

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We are using “Absolute Native Electronic Arduino Compatible DSM501A Dust Air PM2.5 Testing Instruments sensor” for calculating the density of dust particles present in the environment. The main aim to calculate it is we can get a basic idea of the current scenario of dust particles and by studying its causes we can take preventive measures to minimize it. The dust sensor that we are using will calculate only particulate matter of specific size i.e. PM2.5 in the atmosphere 2 kilometres above earth’s crust.

B. Radio Module:-

The radio module will be having a range of 2000 meters so that we can get live data of the sensor. The radio module consists of transmitting and receiving ends. The receiving end will be mounted with the antenna covering the required range. The radio module will provide us with the data of various sensors that we are using in our Payload design and hence we can plot variously required graphs from the readings which as a result will make our data readable and effective. Radio module will help us to give the live ongoing missions data and it's interpretations.

Radio module requires an antenna to catch distant signals. The Radio module must work properly and must be tested before use, as it is one of the vital components and through the radio module only we can get the live data.

C. Altitude Sensor:- Adafruit BMP280 I2C or SPI Barometric Pressure and Altitude Sensor.

[image: ]

The altitude sensor will be helpful for us to calculate the exact altitude at which our sensor is gone up to and hence will be helpful in calculating the graph between the density of dust particles and altitude to get the exact scenario of the current situation.

The efficiency of the altitude sensor must be checked before using because it should give data at a large number of points so that we can plot a good graph with the set of provided readings. The altitude sensor will tell us at what altitude how is the dust particle density and will help us in reaching to our conclusion i.e. which factors are responsible for it and we can surely minimise it by spreading awareness for the same in our society by organising awareness programs.

D. IOT(Internet Of Things):-

IOT environment helps various devices to connect with each other, interact and also to share data amongst each other. In our project, we are using the concept of IOT to get our data from sensors directly to the computer screen in a wifi environment or by using the internet as such.

IOT is nothing but a data exchange environment which helps to cope with various data sharing and connectivity issues.

E. ThingSpeak:-

According to its developers, it is an Open source IOT application and API to store and take the data using HTTP. The ThingSpeak provides an IOT environment where our sensor data of more than one sensors can be stored, manipulated and graphs can be a plot between two varying entities.

The ThingSpeak environment consists of various channel makings. Based on which sensors we are using, we can plot the graphs of that varying quantities. We can also use several predefined wedges so that our data can be interpreted correctly.

In ThingSpeak there are two API keys i.e. Read API key and Write API key. We need to include write API key in our program and as the program runs, our data is written under the IOT environment and is shown in graphical form.[image: ]

Units

· We will use the SI unit of distance i.e. meter to calculate the Altitude of the CANSAT.

· We will use g/m3 to represent the density of Dust particles present in our environment.

[bookmark: _vz7bcq7seykw] Result

After sensing the dust particle in the atmosphere we can get the exact density of dust particle present, so remedy to reduce it.

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Conclusion

Till now, we studied the approach towards the payload design of Cansat for the dust particle. We have come up to the solution for measuring the density of dust particles in the surrounding atmosphere. By referring to the data we can find out the causes of air pollutions and take preventive measures to reduce it to a normal extent.

References

[1] https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/CanSat

[2] http://www.cansatcompetition.com

[3] https://medium.com/@karishnu/from-engineering-to-space-the-nasa-cansat-competition-2018-bfeebc0565da

[4] http://astronautical.org/cansat/

[5] https://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/informal/features/soda-sized-science.html

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