Paper china Essay

Since the late 1980s, there has been a steady production of Latin American narrative fiction in Spanish concerning China and the Chinese culture. Despite the work written about China and its relation to Latin America, no comprehensive examination of the representation of China in literature has been produced so far. This paper analyses some work of renowned Spanish and Latin American writers in whose writing China is the main theme. I would like to explore the representation of Chinese elements like exoticism, mystery, fantasy and marginalization in the poetry and stories of some well known Spanish and Latin American writers like Federico Garcia Lorca, Jorge Luis Borges etc.. Though Borges was brought up in Spain, he read a lot of books about china and became familiar with Chinese culture. So, we can enhance our knowledge about the vision of China in Latin America and Spain through the writings of Borges and Lorca. The relationship between China, Spain and Latin America has deepened more since the 1990s, preceded by the country’s reforms in the 1980s and its rapid integration into the world market. Since then, the presence of China in Hispanic Spanish literature has increased. While representations of China in Latin American and Spanish film and art exist from this period, it is in literature that a significant corpus can be found. Starting in 1987 with the publication of the Argentinean César Aira’s Una novela china, (a Chinese novel) and accelerating through the 2000s. Several novels written by Latin American authors in Spanish, which take China as their main theme, have been published between 1987 and 2016. Recreations of China in Argetine writers César Aira’s Una novela china (A Chinese Novel) (1987), Alberto Laiseca’s La mujer en la Muralla (the woman on the wall) (1990) and Mario Bellatin’s La escuela del dolor humano de Sechuán (The school of human pain of Sechuan)(2001, 2005) Rediscovering Chinese Latin American Communities and barrios chinos in Un chino en bicicleta (A chinese on the bicycle)(2007) by Ariel Magnus, El mármol (the marble)(2011) by César Aira and Verde Shanghai (Green Sanghai) (2011) by Cristina Rivera Garza. Cuban poet Regino Pedroso, in his anthology of Chinese poems El ciruelo de Yuan Pei Fu (The plum of Yuan Pei Fu) published in 1955, The Cuban historian Mario Castillo considers Regino Pedroso’s Chinese-themed poetry an original contribution to Latin American literature, as he infuses material from his actual contact with Chinese culture from his childhood. Cuban novelist Zoé Valdés had written several novels from 1986 onwards in Paris that explored themes such as romantic love, sexuality, femininity, and nostalgia for Cuba, before embarking upon the fully Chinese-themed La eternidad del instante(the iternity of the instance) in 2004. The Chinese featured but marginally in her earlier novels, with passing mentions of Sanfancón, the syncreticized Chinese deity of Cuban Santería, in Querido primer novio (first beloved boyfriend) (1999) and the Chinese mulatta protagonist Cuca Martínez in Te di la vida entera( I gave you the entire life)(1996). Whereas another Cuban writer, Ignacio López-Calvo in his book: Imaging the Chinese in Cuban Literature and Culture (2008) presents the other face of Chinese in Cuba. He argues that Cubans have had a contradictory relationship with the Chinese based on affinity and mistrust since the very first boatload of Chinese coolies arrived in 1847 (approximately 125",000 entered the island between 1847 and 1874). Beginning with coolies and lasting into the Cuban Revolution, López-Calvo demonstrates how Cubans became fascinated with the Chinese and imagined China and the Chinese as a source of hope and a danger at the same time. Over time, representations of the Chinese have progressed from demonization to more realistic portrayals of the Chinese and their experiences. López-Calvo turns to the concept of Orientalism to make sense of the ambiguous reactions towards the Chinese in Cuba. Many cultural productions depict mainland and Cuban Chinese in Western stereotypical fashion: Chinese rulers live lavishly while the masses starve in virtual slavery, the Chinese are cruel and masters of torture, the Chinese are passive and their culture static, the Chinese are secretive and unable to assimilate, the Chinese are refined, China is exotic, and Chinese women and china mulatas are fetishized. Now before moving on to talk about poetry, it is convenient to provide some information about the presence of Chinese culture in Spain from the late 19th century to the early 20th century to see what are the ideas about China that circulated at the time, ideas that Lorca shared in the beginning, but which he later developed in his own way. Chinese culture approached the Hispanic world thanks to the merchandise brought by the well-known Galleon of Manila for commercial purposes: porcelain, silk, Chinese boxes, the folding screen etc. The description of these exotic objects in the novel by Galdós, Fortunata and Jacinta, published in 1887, can confirm the popularity of Chinese merchandise in the upper-middle class of Madrid. The porcelain is, undoubtedly, the one that generated more zeal. Spanish people were found of Chinese porcelain. Spain’s well known poet, Lorca's family was also found of Chinese Porcelain that can be still found in his house. Apart from this, it is essential to observe the image of China that is built in Hispanic literature, which can serve as a literary source for Lorca. Through the close reading of some poems of Lorca titled: “Jardín chino”",(Chinese Garden) " “tres montañas chinas”(three Chinese mountain) “Fábula y rueda de los tres amigos” and “Panorama ciego de Nueva York”(Blind panorama of New york) “Canción china en Europa"(Chinese song in Europe) we see that in the first poems of Lorca, the oriental images are linked with the childhood world characterized by illusion and love. The poem "Jardin Chino" (Chinese garden) consists in the creation of a fantastic space, while the poet contemplates the fireworks show. (That is Chinese firework) In groves of grana and magnesium the little princesses jump on its sparks There is a rain of oranges on the zigzag of the cherry trees and between commas fly blue trained dragonlets. My little girl, this little garden is to see it in the mirrors of your nails. To see it on the folding screen

How to cite this essay: