Organizational Leadership And Governance Essay

Question:

Discuss About the Organizational Governance and Leadership?

Answer:

Introducation:

I have conducted Quinn Management Questionnaire, where I have scored 89% as the mentor. This means I have capabilities to advise or train other people in my team. The result proves that I have the capability to help people and care for them. I have the tendency to appreciate the achievement of others in the workplace. Likewise, as the facilitator I scored 80%, which is referred to the capability of maintaining external legitimacy as well as deriving resources from outside. This skill helps me to become politically astute, with the significant power of conviction, influence as well as power. Similarly, I scored 80% as the monitor, which means I have the competencies to observe what is going around me. Based on the observation I can make judgment. With my competencies, I carry out inspection tours as well as draw up the overviews. As a director, I scored 78%; I make clear expectation with the means of planning and setting targets. I can effectively describe as well as define the problems.

I believe that for the accomplishment of any task, it is necessary for set particular goals and objectives. In addition, as the producer, I scored 78%; the result derived from match with my skills and competencies. For example, I used to work at Mulberry, which was grocery store. I worked as the assistant production manager, where I had to supervise the work of the production team. I was broadly involved in the team and while working with the team I have observed that employees work in the production teams have to deal with increasing amount pressure. The employees would feel stressed and burdened with the workload. Being an assistant production manager, I tried to develop a work friendly environment to motivate the employees. At the same time, I would talk to the employees on a regular basis to identify their issues they face in the workplace. As an innovator, I scored 67%. I observe that I need to develop the skills of presenting the innovative ideas that is relevant to business context. When I used to work as assistant production manager, I needed to apply new ideas to break down the process in the production team. In order to reduce the burden of work on employees, I wanted to apply a facilitated work process, where the tasks should be divided equally to all employees. However, I presented this idea of breaking down the work role but the senior authorities advised me that if the company applies the idea of breaking down the work process, the employees might not want to work at the same position. Thus, I realize that I need to develop new ideas with skills and experiences.


In the emotional intelligence test, I have received an average score. This indicates that I judge the situation based on my intelligence. However, there are many situations where I become rational instead of using my own experience and emotion. This tendency sometimes helps me to resolve the issues but in many cases, I failed to find appropriate conclusion of the issues. For example, in last year, I had to deal with my family quarrel. I wanted to pursue an MBA in finance and for that; I needed to take admission in a University located in Singapore. I cleared the entrance exam and received the admission opportunity in the University. However, my mother did not expect me to go abroad at such young age. In addition, she would have been alone at home for years. I rationally thought and explained the importance of the course. Eventually, I convinced her but I ended up hurting the emotions of my mother. I should have completed the course in my home country. I should have been with her when she needed me the most. I realize I need to judge the issues or real-world problems with both emotion and intelligence.

In the Situational leadership test, I have received an average score. However, there are many situations where I used my skills and experienced the control the overall situation. When I used to work in Mulberry, I supported the gender and racial diversity in the workplace. If any employee in the workplace makes unethical comment, which is against the equality of gender, I will ask the employee to come in my cabin in person. I will start up a formal conversation to convince that individual; thereby he/she further will not through such comment.

Literature Review

Power and Influence

It was studied in the literature, there can be no leadership without influence as influencing behavior is about how leaders. In the literature, it is reviewed that there is a significant difference between the management as well as leadership. Hence, managing team or managing team workplace is referred to practice of accomplishing or having control over leading. The managers or leaders tend to use the intelligence as only a fraction of management work could properly be accomplished through control as well as the use of authority. The aim of both managers and leaders are to achieve organizational goals. The managers have to do it through plans, organization and the process (Daicoff 2012).The managers should direct people as well as manage their performance and on cannot manage people entirely through command as well as control process. The following literature discusses the key ideas and concepts regarding the power and influences and its impact on the leadership. Based on the discussion in the following literature, I focus on the weak areas I mentioned in the self-reflection above. I would particularly focus on some key aspects related to power and influence that are relevant to the weak areas found in the self-assessment.

Definition of power and influence

More than three decades ago, the social scientist John French in 1959 introduced five different sources of power within the organization such as legitimate, reward, coercive, expert and referent. The scholars have conducted several studies on these five sources of power and provided different conclusion such as, Finkelman (2015), mentioned that an individual’s ability could influence others’ behavior as the individual holds a significant position in the organizations.

Legitimate power- Legitimate or position power as it is often called or derived from a position of authority inside the company. In addition, it is often referred to as “formal authority”. The formal authority that organization gives to an individual acquiring a particular position is the influence over other individuals. The individual having legitimate power have realized the right to approach others to do things that come under their authority (Caligiuri & Tarique 2012). For instance, when a manager approaches an employee to work late to complete a project or to work in a different project, the individual is exercising legitimate power. In this context, Smith et al., (2012) commented that subordinates play a significant role in the exercise of legitimate power. This means if the co-workers or subordinates consider the use of power as legitimate, they must have to deal comply with the authorities.

Reward power- It is identified that reward power is referred to the individual’s capability to influence other individual’s behavior by providing them with the access to the things they want to receive. These rewards might be financial such as pay raises or non-monetary. According to Ramazani and Jergeas (2015), the reward power could use reward power to influence as well as control the employee’s behavior as long as the employees value the rewards. For instance, if manager provide employees what they think are rewards, but the employees do not value the offering, then the managers do not have reward power.

Coercive power- As mentioned by Hall and Zierler (2015) coercive power is referred to the ability to influence individual’s behavior by generating a perceived threat to do so. For instance, the employees could comply with the instruction provided by the managers due to the threat or fear of punishment. On the contrary, Muenjohn and Armstrong (2015) commented that typical organizational punishment often include reprimands, undesirable work assignments as well as negative influence that should be used with caution. It might result in a negative feeling towards those who use it. It is also identified that the availability of coercive power could differ from one organization as well as manager to another. In this context, Hogg (2015) properly defined rules as well as procedures administer how coercive power will be applied to prevent superiors from using legitimate power.

Power, influence and leadership

A significant deal of power that people have in the organizations comes from the particular jobs or titles which they possessive. In other words, they have the ability to others, as the formal power is associated with their positions. For instance, the President of United State has special power because of the words. These authorities are such as signing bills, declaration of war. This sort of power often remains vested in the position and they are available to all individuals who hold it. As put forward by Treadway et al., (2013) a true or honest leader is able to influence others as well as modify behavior through legitimate as well as referent power. For instance, Prime Minister of England David Cameron had a noble vision of about United Kingdom and the world but he did not combine groups or people to accomplish goals. As the consequence, the whole nation had to suffer from the dire consequence. On other side, President Truman as well as Johnson implemented their positions effectively as well as able to manipulate groups and to achieve their ends.

Linking the specific aspects found in the self-assessment with the literature

The self-assessment discussed above helps to learn that certain areas such as power, authority, decision-making, communication and skills of developing innovative ideas. According to the score provided by Quinn management survey, I lack ability to present the innovative ideas and concepts. In order to be innovative, the individual requires creativity, enterprising, integrating perspectives, forecasting, and managing change.

Creativity

  • General ideas- The individual needs to come up with the range of different approaches to issues resolving (Barrick, Mount & Li, 2013).
  • Critical thinking- The individual have to logically identify how different the possible are (whether strong or weak)
  • Synthesis- The individual have to find effective ways to approach the problems through synthesizing as well as identifying the information
  • Problem resolving- The individuals have to focus on using the novel ideas to resolve the problem as the leader.

Enterprise

  • Identification of the problem- It is necessary for the individual to pinpoint the actual the nature as well as cause of the problems
  • Seeking improvement- The individuals have to constantly look for the ways that one could enhance
  • Collection of information- The organizations have to identify the relevant sources of information as well as gather. The information must be used while making a strategic decision (Cook et al. 2013).

Conclusion

On the completion of the report, it can be added that to gain the competencies and use them in the real context, the individual must go through certain phases of practice. In addition, to enhance the skills and knowledge, it is essential to set certain goals and based on the goals, the individual could implement the techniques. Moreover, it is also important to use the skills and knowledge to real context. The individual must have to use the skills to their life events. The above-mentioned literature helps to understand how power can be used to gain positive outcome from the context. With the help of self-assessment skills, I have also identified potential areas that I need to develop. Therefore, as the remedy, I have developed action plan of major events and activities that I will achieve through practices, application and self-learning.

Key learning activities

Current efficiencies

Things I need to improve

How to improve

Timeline

Communication skills

I communicate with other colleagues on a regular basis. However, in a workplace, I face barriers to communicate with the senior management. Due to fear of poor communication skills, I could not front with the senior management.

Even though, I have skills of informal communication, I need to develop my communication skills to communicate with the senior management in an organizational context. I need to get rid of fear communication.

To improve my communication skills, I need to attend seminars, educational campaign, where I deliver speech regarding a particular context. In addition to this, I will study journal articles, books and other study materials regarding communication.

3 Months

Problem Solving

My experience in a workplace helps to observe that when I needed to take managerial decision such as changing the shit time employees, I could not implement the decision.

The lack of confidence and rational skills are the potential barriers to me that affect my problem solving skills. Thus, I need to focus on my decision-making skills. By improving the decision making as well as rational thinning, I could develop my problem skills.

In order to improve the decision-making skills, I need to focus on the purpose of decision. Thereafter, I will focus on gathering information. Likewise, I will identify the principles of judging the alternatives.

3 Months

Table 1: Action Plan Table

References

Daicoff, S. S. (2012). Expanding the Lawyer's Toolkit of Skills and Competencies: Synthesizing Leadership, Professionalism, Emotional Intelligence, Conflict Resolution, and Comprehensive Law.

Finkelman, A. (2015). Leadership and management for nurses: Core competencies for quality care. Pearson.

Caligiuri, P., & Tarique, I. (2012). Dynamic cross-cultural competencies and global leadership effectiveness. Journal of World Business, 47(4), 612-622.

Smith, W. K., Besharov, M. L., Wessels, A. K., & Chertok, M. (2012). A paradoxical leadership model for social entrepreneurs: Challenges, leadership skills, and pedagogical tools for managing social and commercial demands. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(3), 463-478.

Ramazani, J., & Jergeas, G. (2015). Project managers and the journey from good to great: The benefits of investment in project management training and education. International Journal of Project Management, 33(1), 41-52.

Hall, L. W., & Zierler, B. K. (2015). Interprofessional Education and Practice Guide No. 1: developing faculty to effectively facilitate interprofessional education. Journal of interprofessional care, 29(1), 3-7.

Muenjohn, N., & Armstrong, A. (2015). Transformational leadership: The influence of culture on the leadership behaviours of expatriate managers. international Journal of Business and information, 2(2).

Hogg, M. A. (2015). Constructive leadership across groups: How leaders can combat prejudice and conflict between subgroups. In Advances in Group Processes (pp. 177-207). Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Treadway, D. C., Breland, J. W., Williams, L. M., Cho, J., Yang, J., & Ferris, G. R. (2013). Social influence and interpersonal power in organizations: Roles of performance and political skill in two studies. Journal of Management, 39(6), 1529-1553.

Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K., & Li, N. (2013). The theory of purposeful work behavior: The role of personality, higher-order goals, and job characteristics. Academy of Management Review, 38(1), 132-153.

Cook, K. S., Cheshire, C., Rice, E. R., & Nakagawa, S. (2013). Social exchange theory. In Handbook of social psychology (pp. 61-88). Springer Netherlands..

Lisak, A., & Erez, M. (2015). Leadership emergence in multicultural teams: The power of global characteristics. Journal of World Business, 50(1), 3-14.

Carter, D. R., DeChurch, L. A., Braun, M. T., & Contractor, N. S. (2015). Social network approaches to leadership: An integrative conceptual review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 597.

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