Organisational Behaviour: Experiences And Associations Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Organisational Behaviour for Experiences and Associations.

Answer:

Every person has a scheme or a collection of ideas, experiences and associations which are brought to a situation and as human beings every person has the tendency to get accustomed with the nature which we find to be the most convenient. Perception is actually the process of interpretation of the messages to the senses in order to provide order and meaning to the surroundings . Most vital of perceptions impacting organisational behaviour are those which the company members have for each other. An individual’s behaviour in the workplace is based on the perception of people towards the place of their work. There exist numerous factors that influence the person’s attitudes, motives, interests as well as the experience and expectations. The associated factors might also involve time, work as well as the social setting. It cannot always be possible for the perceptions to be accurate. There might be several existent biases in a person’s perception. These have the power to impact organisational performance (Alfes et al. 2013).

It is believed that people’s perception is based on their individual outlook of what reality is rather than the existence of reality itself. It is possible for two people to see the same thing but interpret it differently. Perception is the basic cognitive process which is responsible for the transformation of every possible stimuli into meaningful information. In often happens in case of real life issues that they have multi dimensional aspects and the rational approach is often entwined with the instinctive feeling. It happens in organisations that perpetual differences exist and often are the reason for mutual dissatisfaction. There are two cases which are noticed namely stereotyping and selective perception. Stereotyping is basically a characterisation of individuals based on the attributes they possess and helps in the creation of a generalized and simplified belief that does not consider other characteristics. “Selective perception” involves the process of information selection that supports existing belief and ignoring information that is unsuitable or discomforting. This method is considered as a catalyst to stereotyping. This is because it natural for people to notice things which favour their ideas and ignore others (Favero and Bullock 2014).

The mindsets of people and their perceptions impact their behaviour in their organisations. This explains the way in which sensory information is actually organised interpreted and filtered by the people. The concept of attribution explains the way people act, thereby determining the way in which people react to the actions of others. Accurate perception assists the employees in interpreting things they hear and witness in the workplace in an effective manner. These also help them in making decisions, complete tasks and also act ethically. Wrong perceptions lead to issues including stereotyping and cause individuals to make erroneous assumptions (Denham et al. 2010).

When individuals see themselves in difficult and unfamiliar circumstance they tend to find it difficult to cope. It is characteristic of successful business professionals to state their problems as well as the benefits of their ideas to all the prevalent people involved. By the presentation of a convincing case for their facts they get approval for their proposed strategies even in case it is opposed by any sort of apathy or confrontation. By the active recognition of the attributions and perceptions, effective leaders build reasoning for their approach and get the required support when they need it (DeConinck 2010).

It is common for people to attribute their success to skill, chance or even luck. It is common for people to react to circumstances based on their feelings regarding what made the particular event happen. Just like perceptions can be faulty, there is the chance of attributions being inaccurate also. Organisations can ensure the fact that people attribute actions much more effectively by providing diversity in training. This also prevents the faulty attributions by the individuals in managerial positions. It often happens that managers tend to give work to those qualified individuals whom they consider to be lucky for the organisational success.

It often happens that people evaluate or judge others based on their capacity, endeavour or individuality. The difficulty or the luck of a task is attributed to the resultant success or failure. These attributions make people give different explanations for their own behaviour in the organisation. Successful workers who succeed at tasks increase their confidence levels after completion of their training. Those failing have the chance of blaming others or considering themselves to be unlucky. The understanding of the common cause of behaviour might help people to react much more appropriately (Tohidinia and Mosakhani 2010).

Minimisation of bias also helps in the effective team work and this is specifically in case of the reduction of biases which distort attribution. Perceptions, is one particular trait which has been found to either actively or passively influence other traits (Jehn, Rispens and Thatcher 2010).

Perpetual process is the sequence of psychological steps which is utilized by a person in order to systematize and construe information which is obtained from outside world. A person observes those objects which are present in the outside world, uses perception for selection of objects, organises the perception of objects, interprets the perceptions and ultimately the person responds. The selection, organisation and perception interpretation varies among different people. Perpetual selection is caused by both internal and external factors including the personality, motivation and experience. Personality traits impact the way in which a person can select the perceptions. Conscientious people have a tendency to pick details and external stimuli to a greater degree. People select the perceptions based on what they require in a particular moment. Selections likely to help them with their present needs are much more likely to be favoured and things irrelevant to their needs are likely to be ignored. The patters of occurrences or association a person has learned in the past affect the present perceptions. The person is likely to select perceptions in a way which fits their past findings (Heilman 2012).

There are different sorts of biases in human judgement which is applicable in case of organisations. There is the concept of confirmation bias which highlights the fact that human beings have a strong tendency to manipulate new information and facts until their own preconceived notions are matched. The inappropriate confirmation allows for the poor level of decision making which often ignores the truth of situations (Gl?ckner and Witteman 2010).

Another common bias is that of self serving nature. In this situation people have the tendency to take credit for their success and passing their loss on failure. Belief bias is also a common occurrence where individuals take decisions without themselves having all the facts. Their confidence in such decisions is based on a logical and rational assessment of the facts. Framing is also common where individuals ignore relevant facts and consider those only which are applicable. Human beings by nature also match patters where past events are analysed to predict future outcomes (Miner?Rubino and Reed 2010).

The impact of such perceptions and decisions made on the basis of such perceptions lead to a variety of outcomes. The decisions which are already taken also impact the decision making in the future. Several outcomes are experienced. Regret, feelings of disappointment, dissatisfaction with choices is made with any one potential outcome of the decision which has been taken. In huge organisations it happens that when the people in managerial positions particularly take decisions which are biased, they become responsible for any sort of wrong or negative organisational outcome. In case it is realised later that the decisions connected to the organisation which have already been made are wrong, their often remains nothing more to it than regret. In case the decisions made are positive people also feel satisfied with their respective decisions. Organisational choices often rely on a plethora of managerial decisions which are made by the impact of the choices of the individual organisers (Joo 2010).

There are several organisational constraints which affect the perception of people ultimately leading to incorrect decisions. One of the most crucial avenues is that of a reward system. In case a reward system is not properly managed by the team members or the employees at large, the overall organisational performance might be affected. Apart from this in case there are any sort of historical precedents they might largely affect the perception of the individuals in the work environment. In case the rules and regulations are extremely rigid the organisation might perceive the management to be highly inflexible and hostile in their approach. In case the roles and the goals of the organisation are undefined or not clearly explainable it might cause the individuals to take up soft and comfortable goals thereby resulting in the organisational harm. Bias towards different religious or social segments of the people might also cause their people to have a negative idea about the organisation (Hatch 2018).

It is necessary for the managers of today to understand that organisational success is possible only when the perceptions of the employees are completely understood and well addressed. This might involve correcting wrong perceptions as well. Consequently the retention of employees might also reduce and pose a challenge. This clearly shows the importance of proper perception at the workplace and shows that it can make or break an organisation.

References:

Alfes, K., Shantz, A.D., Truss, C. and Soane, E.C., 2013. The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour: a moderated mediation model. The international journal of human resource management, 24(2), pp.330-351.

Chiang, C.F. and Hsieh, T.S., 2012. The impacts of perceived organizational support and psychological empowerment on job performance: The mediating effects of organizational citizenship behavior. International journal of hospitality management, 31(1), pp.180-190.

DeConinck, J.B., 2010. The effect of organizational justice, perceived organizational support, and perceived supervisor support on marketing employees' level of trust. Journal of Business Research, 63(12), pp.1349-1355.

Favero, N. and Bullock, J.B., 2014. How (not) to solve the problem: An evaluation of scholarly responses to common source bias. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 25(1),.285-308.
Denham, S.L., Gyimesi, K., Stefanics, G. and Winkler, I., 2010. Stability of perceptual organisation in auditory streaming. In The neurophysiological bases of auditory perception (pp. 477-487). Springer, New York, NY.

Gl?ckner, A. and Witteman, C., 2010. Beyond dual-process models: A categorisation of processes underlying intuitive judgement and decision making. Thinking & Reasoning, 16(1), pp.1-25.

Hatch, M.J., 2018. Organization theory: Modern, symbolic, and postmodern perspectives. Oxford university press.

Heilman, M.E., 2012. Gender stereotypes and workplace bias. Research in organizational Behavior, 32, pp.113-135.

Jehn, K.A., Rispens, S. and Thatcher, S.M., 2010. The effects of conflict asymmetry on work group and individual outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 53(3), pp.596-616.

Joo, B.K.B., 2010. Organizational commitment for knowledge workers: The roles of perceived organizational learning culture, leader–member exchange quality, and turnover intention. Human resource development quarterly, 21(1), pp.69-85.

Miner?Rubino, K. and Reed, W.D., 2010. Testing a moderated mediational model of workgroup incivility: The roles of organizational trust and group regard. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(12), pp.3148-3168.

Tohidinia, Z. and Mosakhani, M., 2010. Knowledge sharing behaviour and its predictors. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 110(4), pp.611-631.

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