1: Analysis of case study and evaluating conflicts
Conflict faced by the people of Kuala Lumpur
Payment for security guard- The guarded neighbourhoods have become a trend in Kuala Lumpur. The residents have put a lot of efforts for implementing a scheme for increasing their safety and security (Acharya, 2014). However, the security guards are the local goons who forced people to pay them money for protecting their lives from these guards only.
Security guards consist of gang members- The Malaysian security services have admitted themselves that the security companies are supported by gangs. Many of the resident’s associations are being guarded by the gang members, thugs or ex-convicts (Altmae et al., 2013).
Forcing people for continuing the services- These associations have been forced to continue with this service and pay them unless they do not want these criminals and gang members to cause any trouble to them. Hence, it has caused the people of Kuala Lumpur with huge loss of money and resources. These groups fight among themselves to prove their supremacy over rival group (Antia et al., 2013). These fights result in injuring many people and even death on several occasions.
Fight among rival turfs- There has been a case of recent fights or turf wars among these gangs in Bandar, Klang and Bukit Raja. Someone from one of these associations have even commented that the reason for hiring these gang members for security guard is their low rates (Atorough & Martin, 2012). Some of them even broke gate of the guard post of one of the resident while fighting. The people are facing problem while getting rid of these people.
Gangs are expanding territory- The gangs are even expanding their boundaries for gaining more and more profit. Each of the housing area in Kuala Lumpur is expending RM2000 on these gang controlled security system (Conine & Leskin, 2016). These companies hire the criminals, gang members and ex-convict because they are cheaper than the trained armed guards. They charged almost R5 hourly but they are not efficient.
2: Effect of conflict on the society of Kuala Lumpur
Conflict has a severe effect on human society and despite many affects for resolving the conflict; it has a very crucial impact on the human society.
Distracting people from their objective: Conflict has caused distracting groups and individual from their central goal. It would let them with less time for doing their activities (Day, 2015). The conflict involves heavy and contentious tactics for affecting human individual. It has caused hazard for the gangs and criminals as well as the people residing in the area. Their time and resources would get wasted from this diversion. Hence, the security guards are the local goons who forced people to pay them money for protecting their lives from these guards only. The resident’s associations are being guarded by the gang members, thugs or ex-convicts.
Disrupting normal lives of people: Conflict can have both short and long time effect on the humans. It hampers the psychological and physical condition of the people of Kuala Lumpur (Gross et al., 2016). The long term effect on mind of people would cause permanent effect on their coping mechanism. These type of conflicts causes minor shock on the people and results in long and detrimental effect on the people. The long lasting effect of these conflicts not only affects the individual capital but also affects the educational outcome, health situation, and market condition of Kuala Lumpur. It also results in destructing the infrastructure of operations.
Intergroup tension: Conflict not only hazards the people of Kuala Lumpur physically but also causes creating trauma over the people. The unchosen trauma could be transmitted to future generations (Huang et al., 2016). The rivalry and conflict of gang members can transfer from one generation to other. It would cause various changes on both the parties. The people would overlook on the fact of the peace matters. People would care about their life and security rather than their neighbours. The absence of peace and satisfaction among humans would result in growth of disorientation among the persons of Kuala Lumpur.
Increased bitterness: Conflict causes the increase in the bitterness among the people. The people facing problems due to the conflict among these groups have caused bitterness among people against these gangs (Moore, 2014). The bitterness and hatred among people would be increased. It has caused the people of Kuala Lumpur with huge loss of money and resources (Ofori, 2013). These groups fight among them to prove their supremacy over rival group.
Bloodshed and Conflict: The destruction and bloodshed among the gang members have been caused due to these conflicts. It has caused disruption in the normal lives of the people (Ofori, 2013). The tension and trauma has been observed in the lives of people of Kuala Lumpur. They would form bitterness with the gang members who would charge them with money as protection money. The resources and conversations would become limited and it would form a foster sense of aloofness from the other. The exposure to the gang conflicts and turf wars would result in damaging the daily life of the people.
Hence it can be said that the effect of these conflict over the society of Kuala Lumpur is very hazardous. The society of the Kuala Lumpur has to face various situations for proper functioning of their society (Pines et al., 2014). The society of the place would have to face situations like distracting people of Kuala Lumpur from their objective, disrupting normal lives of people, intergroup tension, increased bitterness, and bloodshed and conflict. All these issues have to be dealt by the people and hence it would cause growth and hatred in the people.
3: Explaining the Thomas Kilmann model for conflict management
Thomas Kilmann modes for resolving conflict in Kuala Lumpur
The Thomas Kilmann modes for conflict management are a tool that is widely used for helping people in understanding the different styles of conflict handling. The five modes of Thomas Kilmann Conflict Modes are competing, compromising, collaborating, avoiding, and accommodating. The modes of Thomas Kilmann have become very popular for conflict management. It has helped in facilitating the use of five situation specific style for managing the conflict effectively. The Thomas Kilmann mode would be helpful for conflict management in the guard security of Kuala Lumpur. The four factors of Thomas Kilmann are assertiveness, unassertiveness, cooperative, and uncooperative (Acharya, 2014). Hence, from the figure the three modes that can be useful for solving the problems of guard in Kuala Lumpur are accommodation, competing and compromising.
Figure 1: Thomas Kilmann conflict modes
(Source: Ofori, 2013, pp- 500)
Definition- Accommodation is unassertive and cooperative and it is completely opposite to the competing (Tan, 2016). It has an element of individual neglecting for satisfying the concerns for yielding another’s point of view. It refers to the adjustment of problems. The people would be largely benefited by the implementation of this mode. In this mode the people have to frequently use it for adjusting to the conflict style (Altmae et al., 2013). The styles of the personal beliefs, values and motives push the people for consistent conflicting. The accommodating would help in acceding with the other party.
Explanation- The people would have to accommodate the situation for maintaining the harmony of the place. The situation had been very hard for the people of Kuala Lumpur (Antia et al., 2013). The people would have to accommodate to the current situation. The gangs would have to accommodate to the situation of the problem. The resident association and security services association in Malaysia could implement the accommodation for forming balance in between the assertiveness and cooperativeness. Accommodation would help in forming and focusing on the needs of others and form a mutual relationship in between (Atorough & Martin, 2012). The people of RA and PPKKM would look after each other and form a party. They maintain harmony and mutual relationship for forming the assessing the relation. It forms the positive cooperativeness and negative assertiveness. Accommodation mode is helpful in assessing a wide range of application for conflict management, team building, leadership development, performance improvement, stress reduction, and retention. It would play an important role for identifying the various conflict handling styles for choosing appropriate style relevant to any situation (Trippe & Baumoel, 2015). It improves team functions by motivating members for reconciling differences and working as a team.
Example- Suppose there is flat and two people who want the same flat. It would give rise to conflict among them for procuring the place. However, if they share the flat using accommodative conflict management, it would help both of them to sort out their problem.
Definition: In competing, the mode is assertive and very uncooperative. It can also be termed as power oriented mode of conflict management (Prenzel & Vanclay, 2014). Competing means standing against other for ones right. The person has to pursue his or her individual concern even at other’s expense. They have to defend their position for only wining the situation.
Explanation: The competition would be helpful for removing the uncertain and gang security system of the Kuala Lumpur. The people would be assertive for dealing with the security guard issue of the Kuala Lumpur (Conine & Leskin, 2016). Competing mode would be helpful for taking stern decisions against the ill treatment by the gang members and criminals. The competing would mean to distinguish their needs with the greed of the gang members. The competing nature of the mode is highly assertive and not at all cooperative. The competitive mode of model would be highly partiality (Day, 2015). The sum orientation of the operations would be with highly struggle. The resident association and PPKKM would stick to their own ways for gaining profit. The system would be highly competitive and it would result in chaos and problem. Each of the party would be sticking to their own ideal and they would convince other for agreeing to their terms. The individual attempts for working in collaboration with the other people for forming the fully satisfaction of the individual (Redpath et al., 2013). They struggle to form supremacy over the other party. It’s a win or lose situation for them. Anyone would have to win and other would have to loss.
Example- In an exam, all the students compete against each other for securing the top most position. It is a form of healthy competition and only one of them would win in the case. Hence, competing against each other for proving their superiority would also help in ending the conflict. However in most cases its results are not healthy.
Definition- Compromising is an intermediate form for finding the expedient for splitting the differences, concessions and middle ground position. It does not help in addressing the conflict. The diplomatically form of sidestepping in the issue and it postponing the issue for a better time of solution. The people would have to compromise with the situation and form balance in between the situations that has been arisen (Gross et al., 2016). The people have started to feel hatred and bitterness against the situations of the Kuala Lumpur security system.
Explanation- It is an intermediate form in between assertiveness and cooperativeness. Compromising refers to the situations where both the parties understanding the issues and form an intermediate decisions that favour both the level. The resident association and PPKKM would have to form a minimally acceptable layer for all parties. Compromising means to form a middle situation that could be acceptable for each of them (Huang et al., 2016). It is a minimally acceptable situation for both the parties. In this situation, both the party would compromise at some level. Hence they would form a intermediate form for compromising. Both the parties talk and came to a mid-strategic level where they would select some of the parts from each party. The two persons might take each other’s sight for resolving the competing and confronting. It would help in procuring one on one and also group discussion. Hence, it would be able to eliminate any chances of miscommunication (Tedong et al., 2014). It enhances leadership for managing the conflict by effective skills of action. It would help in overcoming the barriers that may hinder the progress and performance. The stress can be reduced by using the modes of this model (Wolff & Yakinthou, 2013). It gives people a chance for overcoming the workplace stress by giving them the right tools and capacity.
Example- In the case of mutual settlement of court cases, both the parties have to compromise some of their demands for forming a pact that could be acceptable by both of them.
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