Every organization adheres to a set of rules that determine their values and organization structure. The significance of the human resource practices have been accepted by many entrepreneurs and CEO of large-scale enterprises. It comprises of the importance of hiring the best resource in terms of work force. Human Resource Management has been regarded as one of the most important criteria that help in analyzing the resources and the objectives of the concern. A number of theories and models have developed over time, and every organization follows some standard practices that have an impact on its operations.
The two theories that have been adopted for the comparative analysis are the Maslow Theory and the Mc Gregory Theory. These are considered as two of the most important elements for the Human Resource Management.
Maslow Theory: According to the studies and research that have developed through the theory of the Maslow Theory have been introduced and implemented in the ‘A Theory of Human Motivation development’. In the words of Maslow, “The integrated wholeness of the organism must be one of the foundation stones of motivation theory” have helped in developing and improvising the strategies of the human resource department (Maslow, 2013). It has a psychological aspect attached to the theories that help in deciding and incorporating the projections in the development of the practices. Terms such a ‘self actualization’ is the important determinant of the theories that have been developed by the eminent scholar called A.H. Maslow. The concept involves the collaboration of human needs and the motivational system. This eventually affects the approaches and the willingness of the employees if applied within the policies of the human resource management. The theory stated the five factors or psychological needs that are:
- Self-actualization: The ultimate meaning of self-actualization is the personal fulfillment quota. This is the involvement of a number of personality skill and development programs, matching up to the potential requirement criteria for an individual. The appropriate strategies of human resource management can be resourcefully used through this medium in this important phenomenon. The main reason is the need for self-actualization simultaneously makes one individual more self-aware and enhances their personality development techniques in terms of pure human motivations.
- Esteem: Esteem or self-respect means the feeding of the personal ego by the ultimate count of recognition and approval is one of the important aspects of this theory. (Montano & Kasprzyk, 2015). This is the ratification and the acceptance from other social animals because which being do not like compliment or do not like to feel like belonging to a positions of being upper hand than the rest of the individuals. The esteem motivation process has a consequential impact on the prestige, self-control and the acquired status of individual. The concepts of superiority compiles emerge from this kind of mechanism.
- Love/ Belongingness: This factor is again very overlapping in nature with the other essential needs of humanity. According to the opinions of many scholars, “Man is a social being” who always has to satisfy his needs for attaining love and attachment with another social beings (Lawter, Kopelman, & Prottas, 2015) . Therefore, this motivation is in regards to the human emotion, which can be motivated through aspects like concern, affection, care and belongingness, love etc. The expectation to be a well-loved individual among the peers is one of the key determinants of this need. Friendship and close associations are the agents for integrating this need.
- Safety / Security: This need is very relative to the self-actualization needs because, if one individual were denied the minimal amount of social security, it would be unjustified of him to prove his social image or social consciousness (Lawter, Kopelman, & Prottas, 2015). This aspect is indeed a necessary aspect because of the assurance and longevity purpose of an individual therefore from these arise the need to confirm and ensure the personal factors of sustenance. Moreover, the motivation in this scenario mainly entails the criteria of financial security, personal security of being content with own self-accommodation and supply of food security.
- Psychological: It is regarded as one of the significant factors and needs of the human beings. It is essential and inevitable in nature because the significance of shelter, clothing, food, personal motivations etc can never be denied. Therefore, the psychological needs are in accordance with the behavior and attitude of human nature that invariably depends on the state of this nature. In fact, the personality development of an individual is based on this psychology as the minute functions and grows along with these essential proportions of mental and physical satisfaction.
In his, account of the ‘Human Side of Enterprise’ McGregor made propositions to a theory, which involved two elements. The two mnemonics designed for this purpose is “X” or the existing negative culture, and the “Y” theory or the positive implication. The two devices that have been used to appropriate the tendencies and working culture practices. The involvement is necessary for the comprehension of the suitable method to be used for the selected organization. According to Jiang, Lepak & Baer, “X theory and Y theory are contrasting in nature” which states the conception of the two theories (Jiang, Lepak, & Baer, 2012) . Theory X refers to the hostile working culture practices that degrade the relationship between the employee and the employer. The workforce are not satisfied with the work as well as the management is not at all concerned with the ideologies of good practices and organizational effectiveness. On the other hand, Theory Y is defined as the most feasible working operations and practices that can be employed in the organization, which enhances the organizational, and employee effectiveness. The responsibility and the mode of decentralization are apparently much better than the one followed in the case of the X theory.
The comparisons between the two theories are:
- The need for five different types of human motivation can be classified and arranged in a series of hierarchical functions, which can be resourcefully used for further development process but in case of the X-Y theory, it is not segmented or arranged in only two different ways.
- The effect or the dominance of the different sets of the hierarchical structure essentially helps in determining and judging its importance. The five segments are inherently independent on each other, but in a scenario of the X and Y theory, there are two presences of two extremes only.
- The aspects of the Maslow theory are much more varied and extensive in nature, but on the other hand, the McGregor theory states that there are only two conditions, which determines the hypothesis that has been formed along with it.
Best fit and best practice model
The two models for the comparison of the suitable practices of strategic human resource management are the best fit and the best practice model. There are two different kinds of organizational fit, one is synchronic and the other is pragmatic in relation to the business functions. The best-fit and best practice model is central to the basics of appropriate strategic human resource management.
Best fit: In the words of Caroll, the best fit framework synthesis method offered a means to test, reinforce and build on an existing published model conceived for a potentially different but relevant population” (Wery & Thomson, 2013) . The concept of a best-fit model is pragmatic in nature. The transparent process is developed along the lines of the practices of which enhance the performances of the employees. The theory represents and involves the needs that arise in the scenario due to the motivational factor. The infrastructure of the HRM practice and its congruency with the business operations is the decorum followed by the best model. In the words of many scholars, the definition of the best fit: “The pattern of planned human resource deployments and activities intended to enable the firm to achieve its goal”, (Wright & Mcmahan). The notion of best-fit model is involved in some kind of alignment with the reward systems and competitive comprehension.
Best practice: The best practice models hold the conception that has developed over the urgent needs of the organization by virtues of the people and the humanistic values. In fact, in these models the human resource management entails practices that of investing in the best human resource and allocates them the value, which is equal to the effort.
This model observes the increasing skill and empowerment capacities in terms of high performance evaluation. The commitment and values of cooperation are transferable in the best practice model framework. The theories have been developed for the implementation and incorporation across many organizations. Amidst all theories, the concrete theory, which will suit with the best type of the best practice model, will be adapted. Therefore, as the assumptions are pluralists in nature the best practice is a recommended one. The procedures of best practice model have implications that are followed in the results. It is a more feasible and comfortable method and the implications are comparatively positive.
The suitable application of one theory and one model
As a manager of ABC enterprise, I feel that the application of the Maslow Theory will be beneficial for the organizational effectiveness. The importance of the best practice model is highly appreciated in the organizational structure and policies that are adopted by several managers. The incorporation of the best practice model in the enterprise will be enhanced in my organization, which will improve the quality and increase the wok productivity. The application of the suitable model for my organization will be embedded in the work culture itself, which will easily be accepted, by the different departments and executives of my organization.
Justification of the appropriate Strategic- HRM for my organization
The organizational and operative practices that are being employed in my organization will aid in the better analysis of the business model that is followed in my organization. I regard that the operative advantages of following a routine analysis of the motivational programs provide an extensive approach in looking after a number of elements that often is not often looked in the employee effectiveness criteria. There have been a number of research practices and academic references that have been incurred while referring to the Motivational theory. As a manger, I will comply with the best resultant options that will have a macrocosmic approach to the technical as well as humanistic agents of my enterprise.
The research observation that has been inferred from the journal, “The effective human resource management system in transitional China: a hybrid of commitment and control practices”, states the improvement in the scenario of the organizational decorum after it has been applied (Chung, Sparrow, & Bozkurt, 2014) . Moreover the two experiments that have been conducted on the two organizations, in China where the overview of following these practices have turned out to be effective, have also observed many other opportunity areas and maximization of both the production as well as the structures of the human resourcing management. In the words opined by DJ, which is an observation of Turner and Fern, which established the adaptation to the systematic culture help in adapting to a number of organizational amendments. In the words of David, “the collaborative methods of the following structure can help in coordinating with human as well as the mechanical factors, through “sui generis” or the strategic acts” (Teece, 2012). The fact that the Motivational Theory, which is derived by Maslow, interacts and responds directly to the humans in the courses of their activity determines the impact of it.
In the words of Gouveia the recognition of the value function that can be used in the strategic human resource management can be used only because it recognizes the cognitive needs of an individual (Mohamed & Nor, 2013) . An existential humanistic approach has been applied while deciding on the experiential utility of the best practice model along with the humane conditions that have apparently submitted to the requirements of the success of the concerned organization. I need to ensure all the factors that undermine my stake as well as business maneuver because ABC Enterprise follows a participatory leadership phenomenon, which can be influenced, only by following the theory of Maslow. The appropriate policies of this model are required for increasing and enhancing the employee retention capacity and achieving the success of organization efficacy.
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