Mental Health: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Mental Health for Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.

Answer:

Introduction

It has been observed from the literature review that theorists have shied away from research into creativity. Despite many blocks to study there are various models of creativity do exist. Creativity occurs in the care sector, but there are many challenges when many diverse settings are included. There are potential benefits of creativity to both carer and service user. The aim of the assignment is as a student of creative skills is to critically compare models, contributory theories, and different application settings of creativity. Further the assignment discusses the problems of definition in creativity and the potential benefits of creativity at physical, intellectual, emotional and social levels.

Critical comparison of models, contributory theories and different application settings of creativity

In mental health services the care users poses many challenges. In such circumstances, incubation is the best way to take a break from the creative problem solving. As per the Wallas’ model, a period of incubation is necessary. It helps in creative problem solving. It helps the care providers to forget the misleading clues of the care user. On the other hand lack of incubation or rest period may lead to fixing on the inappropriate strategies for solving the problem (Ritter and Dijksterhuis 2014). This model contradicts the earlier hypothesis put forward by the Csikszentmihalyi's five phase model of the creative process. As per this model the creative solution to the problem arises when unconscious mind takes over the conscious mind without the later trying to make logical order out of the problem. As the conscious mind is occupied in some tasks, the unconscious mind can mysteriously allow the unique connections to be made (Csikszentmihalyi 2014).

As per the Geneplore model, creativity takes place in two phases. In the generative phase the individual constructs preinventive structures which are the mental representations. The other phase called the exploratory phase; these structures are used to generate creative ideas (Runco 2014). It aligns with the view of P?terv?ri et al. (2016) which emphasise that people develop new ideas by using their imagination. These ideas are structured in the predictable ways with the help of the pre-existing concepts and categories. However, it is contradictory with the view of Gl?veanu and Tanggaard (2014), which emphasise that creativity yields extraordinary results using the ordinary cognitive processes.

The theory of convergent and divergent thinking is also applicable for the care users and the care givers. When the practioner is solving the care users’ problems, he/she may aim for the single correct solution. This pattern is called convergent thinking. In the psychology literature the synonym of creativity is also called divergent thinking. In this pattern of thinking a problem can be solved in multiple ways and is referred as fluid intelligence that may be similar to creativity (Bekker 2016). This theory may be partly similar to the creative cognition approach explained by the Geneplore model as it is based on imagination. It may be similar because divergent thinking also partly involves imagination (Au et al. 2015). However it differs from the Honing theory of creativity. As per the Honing theory by psychologist Liane Gabora, is the process of honing and re-honing the integrated worldview (Gabora 2016). The world view brings about the internal cognitive restructuring. An individual may have a worldview that may be uniquely structured and may be reflected in the personal style. This theory differs from all the above theories or models. In the above theories the focus is mainly on the generation of the outcome or the solution to problem in the practice setting. On the contrary the, honing theory lays greater emphasis on effect of the creative process on the creator’s worldview (Runco 2014).

In the health care sector, the practioners can implement the theories of creativity. Using creativity for creative therapy, patient care can be enhanced. Instead of using same routine or different approach can be taken for the patients who are aggressive or unwilling to follow the care regime. The general physicians in health care can relook at the patient’s disease. The physician can re-imagine and feel what it means to be having a disease. Perspective of other areas can also be used in the medicine. With the help of above mentioned theories, the artificial barriers of the medicine can be broken (Gourevitch 2014). In any service the customer engagement is necessary for successful outcome of many services. Particularly in the mental health setting the, psychologist may involve the creative practices. Along with the problem solving, customer effort is also essential. There might be situations where the customers act reluctant and sick. In such cases the psychologists may use different theories of creativity to determine how the client’s creativity works in such a context. Creativity can also be applied in various other settings of mental health such as rehabilitation centres, for challenging behaviours of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (Runco 2014).

In regards to care users say in metal health setting, creativity has been investigated in relation to schizotypy. The traits include cognitive disorganisation, unusual experiences, or impulsive non-conformity. Creativity is also associated with some facets of psychopathology. Some of the mental processes may be similar between the psychotic and creative thinking . According to Runco (2014) people with positive personality traits such as broad interests, openness and self confidence are also creative. This can be applied in the care sector particularly in the mental health setting where the care givers can us these positive traits of the care user to design the care plan. It can be useful for the mental health care providers to understand the disorganisation of thought in the patients or the impaired cognitive control. It is because the people with the psychosis-proneness often shows this traits and is known to be associated with the creative cognition/divergent thinking (Bekker 2016).

There are other application settings of creativity. The personal learning can be optimised by customising a learning environment. In the e-learning process, creativity has become a popular trend. Creativity has helped develop personalised learning system that increases learning effects and the learner’s motivation (Lin et al. 2013).

Discussion of the problems of definition in creativity

It is difficult to define creativity as not all people with creative skills are alike. Originality and functionality are the two parts of definition of creativity. According to some psychologists creativity is not possible unless a person comes up with something new that was not present before. It means that the idea has to be functional and adaptive in some way and only then it can be considered useful. There is also a third criterion for approving the intellectual property rights for ideas and products. Since 20th century the definitions of creativity has been questioned several times and have been expanded in different ways (Kaufman 2016).

In terms of personality-creativity connection, there is say a distinction to be made between the "little-c" creativity and "big-C" creativity. According to Runco (2014), little-c" creativity indicates the mental health as it involves solving the daily life problem and adapting to changes. On the other hand, the "big-C" creativity is rare as it helps people solve the problem based on what other live their lives. As per the psychology studies, artists with mental illnesses create arts that are very expressionistic and more realistic. Not all intelligent people develop creative skills and one needs a perspective to see things differently. A person with minimum IQ needs an additional factor to be truly creative; however, this additional factor is not specifically defined. Thus, the problem of definition in creativity remains (Kharkhurin 2014).

Potential benefits of creativity at a physical, intellectual, emotional and social level

At both individual and societal level, creativity is important. Creativity helps solve daily life problem. Hence it is helpful at the individual level. Creativity helps to enable new scientific findings and inventions at societal levels, as well as organisation levels. Research into creativity can be called as interdisciplinary field. The same is reflected in the preset body of literature. The research involves clinical, behavioural, economical, cognitive, educational, organisational, personality and social perspective. Creativity is considered beneficial because it helps generate something that is novel and useful in a given situation (Zhou and Hoever 2014).

There is a bulk of literature available to explain the impact of creativity on health. Creativity increases the ability to heal oneself. In the health care many patients are subjected to the art and music therapy. The literature evidence showed positive effect of the visual arts such as painting, drawing, photography, textiles and pottery in patients with struggling with cancer and health debilitating illnesses. Thus, creativity is beneficial at physical and emotional level (Gl?veanu and Tanggaard 2014). According to Repar and Reid (2014) thoughts of illnesses can be distracted by the art filled occupational voids. It helps in decreasing the negative outcomes which improves the well-being. Depression is reduced as creativity improves the medical outcomes. Creative activities reduce stress and anxiety, which in turn increases the positive outcomes. It helps to reduce the distress and negative emotions. As per Repar and Reid (2014), creativity helps in the improvement of expression of grief, flow and spontaneity, positive identity and social networks. It means that creativity is beneficial for the emotional and social levels.

If a customer has the problem solving capability than it can be applied to solve the consumption related problems. From a traditional perspective the role of producers and customers are different. There has been a re-conceptualisation of the service user’s role, which resulted from the shift to a value-in-use perspective. Using this new approach the classic approach to production and consumption becomes insufficient. It depends on customers that how they own their services after the providers have made the value propositions (Barbuto et al. 2016). The service used by the customers is determined by the interactions, activities and the perspectives of the product hold by them. In this process, creativity offers various benefits. For instance, the concept of self design or self-production was a unique form of involving the customers. In the mental health setting the patients are allowed to give consent on their choice of treatment (Kaufman 2016). According to Gl?veanu and Tanggaard (2014), creative identities are regarded as representational projects, which emerge during the interaction between the creator and different audiences and notions of creativity informed by societal discourses. The creative identities can be promoted, problematic or denied for both self and others. Holding the particular creative identity influences the engagement of the creator with his or her own work.

Not only in the health care setting but also in personal life there are multiple benefits of creativity. As per many studies on creativity and its association with intelligence it was found that highly intelligent people were also creative. For instance, highly intelligent people like Beethoven, Einstein, were highly imaginative which is more important than knowledge. Creativity helps to become more imaginative. As per the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs creativity is at highest level. Creativity helps to think in terms of bigger picture by which our needs for knowledge can be fulfilled and we can attain the level of self-actualisations (Repar and Reid 2014). At an intellectual level creativity contributes to internal security in terms of or in face of death. For instance the Nobel Prize winner Bob Dylan was motivated with the goal of enduring legacy and the idea of leaving. Similar others believed that using the creativity and imagination is the affirmation of life (Barbuto et al. 2016).

Conclusion

The assignment critically compared the models, contributory theories, and different application settings of creativity. Further the assignment discussed the problems of definition in creativity and the potential benefits of creativity at physical, intellectual, emotional and social levels. As there are challenges to definition in creativity, there may be reason for the theorists to shied away from research into creativity. Creativity occurs in the care sector, but there are many challenges when many diverse settings are included. There are potential benefits of creativity to both carer and service user. Using the different models and theories one can design effective care plan for the service users in the care sector.

References

Au, J., Sheehan, E., Tsai, N., Duncan, G.J., Buschkuehl, M. and Jaeggi, S.M., 2015. Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory: a meta-analysis. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 22(2), pp.366-377.

Barbuto Jr, J.E., Bugenhagen, M.J., Stohs, J.M. and Matkin, G.S., 2016. Encouraging creativity and intellectual stimulation: An exercise that forces students to think outside the box. Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, 4(3).

Bekker, E., 2016. The role of divergent thinking and convergent thinking in the relation between intelligence and literacy ability(Master's thesis).

Csikszentmihalyi, M., 2014. Society, culture, and person: A systems view of creativity. In The Systems Model of Creativity (pp. 47-61). Springer Netherlands.

Gabora, L., 2016. Honing theory: A complex systems framework for creativity. arXiv preprint arXiv:1610.02484.

Gl?veanu, V.P. and Tanggaard, L., 2014. Creativity, identity, and representation: Towards a socio-cultural theory of creative identity. New Ideas in Psychology, 34, pp.12-21.

Gourevitch, M.N., 2014. Population health and the academic medical center: the time is right. Academic Medicine, 89(4), p.544.

Kaufman, J.C., 2016. Creativity 101. Springer Publishing Company.

Kharkhurin, A.V., 2014. Creativity. 4in1: Four-criterion construct of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 26(3), pp.338-352.

Lin, C.F., Yeh, Y.C., Hung, Y.H. and Chang, R.I., 2013. Data mining for providing a personalized learning path in creativity: An application of decision trees. Computers & Education, 68, pp.199-210.

P?terv?ri, J., Osman, M. and Bhattacharya, J., 2016. The role of intuition in the generation and evaluation stages of creativity. Frontiers in psychology, 7.

Repar, P.A. and Reid, S., 2014. Creatively caring: effects of arts-based encounters on hospice caregivers in South Africa. Journal of pain and symptom management, 47(5), pp.946-954.

Ritter, S.M. and Dijksterhuis, A., 2014. Creativity—the unconscious foundations of the incubation period. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 8.

Runco, M.A., 2014. “Big C, little c” creativity as a false dichotomy: Reality is not categorical. Creativity Research Journal, 26(1), pp.131-132.

Runco, M.A., 2014. Creativity: Theories and themes: Research, development, and practice. Elsevier.

Zhou, J. and Hoever, I.J., 2014. Research on workplace creativity: A review and redirection. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav., 1(1), pp.333-359.

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