Distinction between experimental and non-experimental research
Experimental research refers to the systematic and scientific approach followed in conducting a research where the investigator hold the authority to manipulate one or more variables thereby regulating and measuring the changes occurring in other variables. It is generally regarded as the truest form of investigatory research with reference to its distinguished characteristics features. The chief characteristics that define experimental research include the vital concepts encompassing manipulation, control and randomization. On the contrary non-experimental research consists of studies where the experimenter does not regulate, manipulate or alter the predictor variables but rather depend upon interpretation, observation or interactions among the variables to reach onto a definite conclusion. Selection of the subjects for the study together with adequate treatment of confounding factors is generally carried out by the experimenter in this type of research (Colamesta & Pistelli, 2014).
Identification of three main disciplinary traditions for qualitative nursing research
In case of the qualitative nursing research, three main disciplinary traditions have been detected. This may include applications concerning the disciplines of anthropology, psychology and philosophy. Anthropology utilizes the research tradition of ethnography, philosophy makes use of phenomenology research tradition while psychology uses ethology research tradition. Ethnography relates to the holistic viewing of a particular culture. Phenomenology associates the experiences encountered by individuals in course of their daily livings. Ethology refers to the observation of behaviors over a certain time frame relevant to the natural surroundings (Green & Thorogood, 2013).
Flow and sequence of activities in quantitative and qualitative research and their distinctions
Quantitative research essentially comprises of five major phases with each phase consisting of separate and independent intermittent steps that are imperative in completion of the total study design. The various phases in this type of research include conceptual phase, design and planning phase, empirical phase, analytic phase and finally dissemination phase. In contrast to the quantitative research, the qualitative research follows a slightly different approach. The vital steps of the process involve determination of the research questions, design of the study, collection of information, analysis of the data retrieved, generation of findings, and validation of the results through proper resources and finally writing up or documenting the main findings in the form of report (Creswell, 2013).
Types of research reports
Research reports often vary in terms of their content and individual components that make up the bulk portion of the type of experiment conducted pertinent to a given context and topic. Qualitative research encompasses case studies, narrative analyses and descriptive qualitative studies. However in broader aspects, research reports may be of four sorts such as that represented in the form of journal articles, presentations at conferences, theses and dissertations and even books. Among these, journal articles may be refereed by peer review, blind review or primary Vs secondary sourced (Robson & McCartan, 2016).
Major sections in a research journal article
A research journal article generally comprise of a number of sections that enable the reader to easily understand the matter through unified concepts distributed in each section. In brief the vital sections included in such article include title, abstract, introduction and literature review, method, results, discussion, conclusion and finally references. Title refers to the address of specific issues and topics with relevant keywords that clearly states the problem of the research. Abstract provides an overview of the overall content in the article by means of providing a through synopsis of the entire content. Introduction offers the background information related to the study through emphasizing on the purpose of the research. Literature review helps in collecting information from past studies procured from credible sources such as that of books or peer reviewed journal articles. Methods section defines the research design and methodology that is possible of replication in future studies. Results section contributes to the depiction of the findings acquired in course of the study. Graphical and tabular representation of the findings is also permitted in this section. Discussion section lays emphasis in elaborating the implications of the studies in the given field as well as other fields. The strengths and limitations of the study in addition to evaluation of the potential for future research are also done in this section. The final section in a research journal article consists of the lists of references or bibliography where list of all academic sources utilized in course of the research is provided in definite format (Jackson, 2015).
Characteristics of the style used in quantitative and qualitative research reports
The style or approach followed in case of quantitative as well as qualitative research reports follows distinct patterns that are unique to each of them. Qualitative research report has the objective of completing the detailed description of the study undertaken. Researcher often remains in apprehension as to what to expect out of the study and therefore generally conducted at the initial phases of the research project. Design is framed in due course of the study. Data is acquired and presented in the form of words, objects or pictures. It is more subjective in outlook and emphasizes on the individual interpretation of events that are often found to be time consuming and lacks the generalization for application in future studies. Contrary to this, quantitative research report is more objective in its approach where the investigator utilizes tools such as questionnaires or equipments to measure or quantify the variables under consideration. It is considered more reliable and efficient capable of testing hypothesis and offering statistically meaningful data (Mertens, 2014).
Distinction between research summaries and research critiques
Research summaries contribute to the provision of an unbiased overview of an article or likewise text with the aim of informing the readers regarding the overall theme of the study avoiding repetition of details. Contrarily, research critiques offer the unique opinion and insight of the reviewer regarding the content of the article and the views expressed must be well supported with valid opinions from credible sources. Development of arguments and understanding of the arguments within the text are some of the important objectives of research critiques (Holloway & Wheeler, 2013).
Rationale for emergent designs in qualitative research and description of qualitative design features
The evolving and dynamic changes of the everyday happenings and life experiences have called for giving suitable explanations through novel and effective designs relevant to qualitative research. Characteristics of qualitative research include focusing on complex and broad aspects, subjective in approach abiding by dialectic and inductive reasoning approach to address the issues holistically. Further qualitative design is unique for its individual variation in interpretation through proper communication, observation and interpretation of the data procured (Creswell, 2013).
Identification of the major research traditions for qualitative research and description of the domain of inquiry of each
For qualitative research, the major research traditions that are identified include ethnology, phenomenology and ethology. The domains of inquiry vary widely with each of the identified research tradition and follows definite patterns. Ethnography provides a thorough and systematic analysis of the culture of people through consideration of their distinct customs, beliefs and practices. Phenomenology emphasizes upon the lived experience of the individuals and pays attention to the philosophical study of the structures of consciousness and experiences. Further ethology concentrates on studying the human behavior under natural conditions and social organization based on biological perspective where behavior is understood as an evolutionarily adaptive trait (Flint & Woodruff, 2015).
Main features of ethnographic, phenomenological, and grounded theory studies
Ethnography consists of the scientific description concerning peoples and cultures including their customs, habits in addition to their mutual differences. Phenomenology refers to focusing on the study of consciousness together with the objects of direct experience. Grounded theory however is applicable to the construction of a definite proposition by virtue of analysis of the data retrieved (Flint & Woodruff, 2015).
Goals and methods of various types of research with an ideological perspective
The ideological framework often adopted by certain researchers aim to shift attention certain vital social issues thereby paving ways for steering positive changes. Various avenues pertaining to investigations in the given context is generally provided by means of this ideological adaptation. Critical theory, feminist research, participatory action research is the common methods that link to the ideological perspectives in conducting the research (Mertens, 2014).
Colamesta, V., & Pistelli, R. (2014). Study design: features of non-experimental studies. Respiratory Epidemiology: ERS Monograph, 65, 249.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.
Flint, D. J., & Woodruff, R. B. (2015). Issues in a Grounded Theory Study of Customer Desired Value Change: Resolutions using Phenomenology, Ethnography and Holistic Transcript Readings. In Proceedings of the 1997 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (pp. 134-139). Springer International Publishing.
Green, J., & Thorogood, N. (2013). Qualitative methods for health research. Sage.
Holloway, I., & Wheeler, S. (2013). Qualitative research in nursing and healthcare. John Wiley & Sons.
Jackson, S. L. (2015). Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach. Cengage Learning.
Mertens, D. M. (2014). Research and evaluation in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. Sage publications.
Robson, C., & McCartan, K. (2016). Real world research. John Wiley & Sons.