The concept of motivation has been a theoretical construct for centuries. It refers to the direction, the intensity and the initiation of the behavior of the person. Even with the following of multiple researches, applications, journal articles, motivation is still considered to be a concept. In case of a business environment, the ability to control and initiate the motivation of the other individual has been proved to be quiet challenging. In case of the employee engagement in the business organization, the motivation acts as the key tool behind the improvement of the employee performance. The managers of the organization are thus increasingly reminded regarding the importance of the need for motivation in the workplace environment (Othman et al. 2018). This incredibly broad and complex topic of discussion is often considered as the key areas for effective organizational behavior. Motivation is mainly the internal and the external forces that are the sources of interest, directions and efforts of goal direction. The motivational theories are thus essential for the understanding of the process related to the explanation of the triggered behavior (Van den Broeck et al. 2016). The assignment illustrates the various theories and concepts of motivation and initiates a vivid critical evaluation related to the use of the key theories of motivation for initiating an increase in the employee engagement. The assignment furthermore explains the factors affecting on the performance and satisfaction of the employees working at a business organization.
There lie extensive evidences regarding the study of motivation but there is no single motivational theory that fits the purpose and is accepted universally. This is because of the complex nature of human psychology (Albrecht et al. 2015). For having a deeper understanding of the theories of motivation, it is thus essential to identify the need for motivation beforehand. To be motivated means to be inspired to do something. There are five types of motivation in general.
Intrinsic Motivation – This motivation belongs to the category of internal motivation that illustrates the willingness of a person to execute an activity due to an inherent satisfaction (Bergstr?m and Garcia Martinez 2016). It occurs in case of action without any fixed external rewards.
Extrinsic Motivation – It is the tendency to execute activities for obtaining separate outcome related activities. Extrinsic motivation illustrates that the individual is influenced or moved by external rewards and complexity towards the activity.
Introjected Motivation – It illustrates the scenario where the employees are driven by their internal or self-belief towards their responsibility that they should perform embracing the values of such activities (Othman et al. 2018). This category of motivation is more self-determined.
Identified Motivation – Individual exhibiting with personally identifies specific behavior is essential for the achievement is generally termed as the identified motivation. Example is promotion.
Integrated Motivation -Individual people evaluating themselves for internalizing and incorporating the reasons for the performance of activity is generally defined as the integrated motivation.
Motivational theories serve the key factors that promotes as an important factor in the scenario of motivating the individuals in the workplace.
Self -determination Theory: Developed by Deci and Ryan, the self determination theory analyses and evaluates the conditions for the improvement and diminishing of the three main categories of motivation (Singh 2016). These are autonomous, controlled, amotivation. These are mainly considered as the predictors of satisfaction and influence towards better engagement and performances. According to the explanation of the theorist, there are five main types of motivation that are considered to be an important aspect of the theory in discussion. The category of autonomous motivation includes both the identified and intrinsic motivation where an individual tends to pursue activities with the sense of choice and willingness (Eisenberger, Malone and Presson 2016). The theory of self determination furthermore includes distinctive heuristic powers that helps the team leaders and the managers to identify the determinants, constructs and the principal of the proposed theory, motivational categories and psychological requirements. Besides this the validity of the measurements that are used in the elf determination theory has been on question due to the high chances of biasedness in the methodology of the theory(Bergstr?m and Garcia Martinez 2016). To summarize, the motivational theory was the first theory that was developed in the context of motivation. It has undergone multiple elaboration and refinements (Rahman and Nurullah 2014). In short, the self-determination theory has initiated a helping hand to the managers of the organization to specifically identify and target the needs of the employees and serve as the key that influences the employees towards the achievement of high level of self-motivation that eventually result in the improved performances of the employees.
Need based motivational theories- These theories critically analyses the effect of the employee requirements on their motivation in the context of performance and job satisfaction.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory - One of the most renowned and influential motivational theory provides the employers, the researchers and managers with five of the most basic or fundamental needs or principles which according to the theorists are important for successfully and efficiently motivating individuals for the achievement of satisfaction and great performances. The motivational hierarchy of Maslow’s theory, has helped multiple business organization to develop and introduce packages and measures of benefits for resonate with the employees of the organization, the level of requirements of individual that has resulted in improvements to the motivation, productivity and the overall profit margin of the business organization.
The theory of Maslow's hierarchy of needs continues to shape the understanding of the job satisfaction regardless of the industry type. Furthermore the improved understanding as explained by Maslow in his theory ensures the managers of the organization towards the recognition of the needs and requirements of the individual, their level of job satisfaction and their performances (Turabik and Baskan 2015). According to the researchers, for the effective implementation of the hierarchy of needs and for the improvement of the employee engagement and performance the business organization and its managers must concentrate on the provision of attractive incentives and less tangible elements. This is because money or the financial status is directly associated with the hierarchal needs of the individual.to different degrees and it highly contributes to the progression and satisfaction and the five need levels at per the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
Alderfer's ERG theory – As proposed by Alderfer, the ERG theory was mostly developed and founded on the shortcomings of the hierarchy of needs of Maslow’s. The theory explains a very simpler conceptual model illustrating three of the fundamental needs of the group (Rudolph 2016). These are existence, relatedness and growth. The theory has distinctive differences suggesting several different needs that are simultaneously active and the hierarchical orders of the individual needs is totally irrelevant as they differs from one person to another (Mostafa, Gould?Williams and Bottomley 2015). The significance of the theory lies on the very fact that the concepts and the modules of the theory challenges the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory by offering a contrasting angle towards the debate of motivation. This is because the theory aims to offer a realistic and evidence based view of the individual requirements, the level of satisfaction and their contribution towards the improvement of the performance of the employees of a business organization in the current era.
The empirical evidences as described by the theory illustrates that the self esteem of the employee tends to have a major impact or influence towards their ability to perform the job effectively. The unique and the realistic behavioral actions like the frustration and the egression phase illustrates that the theory is truly superior and includes an efficient methodology and explained model that provides invaluable insights towards the motivation of the human (Huang et al. 2016). Due to lack of proper critiques and evidences, this particular theory has not been a subject to much of debates and criticism. Researchers claims that despite the identification of proper correlation in the theory that draws the conclusion which highlights the factors of motivation, the theory neglected some of the reliable methods that are capable enough to satisfy any of the requirements of the individual. The main significance of this particular theory is that it directly challenges the seminal views and proposition of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs by offering an evidence based and realistic view of the needs, requirements of the individual together with the satisfaction towards their contribution to improve employee engagement ad employee performances (Eggert 2015). Until the systematic analysis and critics by multiple sources and researches, this particular theory on its true nature and results is a big question to the implementation to the business organization and the improvement of the performances of the employees and their level of job satisfaction.
Opposing Attribute Theories – These theories serve as another tool for the critical analysis and discussion of the influence over the engagement and performance of the employees (Olafsen et al. 2015). These theories are distinct from that of the need based theories.
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y – This is a motivational framework conceptualized firstly by McGregor for the proper addressing of the assumptions and the chances about the employee psychology. The assumptions for the hypothesis in the theory is generally represented by the letter X and Y. The theorists illustrates that team leaders of business organization or the managers of the organization with the disposition or the believe towards the theory X tends to believe that each and every employee of the workplace generally possess a negative nature or attitude towards their responsibilities and their work in their office and hence the employees must be coerced towards performing their tasks or works (Fernandez and Moldogaziev 2015.). Managers following theory Y tends to hold the view that, with the provision of ample opportunities and appropriate conditions all the employees of the organization can be motivated. The application of the theory will enhance all the employees to be responsible towards their work, self-motivated, eager towards building workplace relations and full enjoyment and satisfaction towards their work.
One of the negative factors of the theory is that the general consensus of the theoretical model lacks relevant comprehensive findings and is both underdeveloped to wards the proving of the performance and employee job satisfaction. This describes the theory’s narrow minded targets and the disrespect and disregard towards the relevant environmental factors (Rahman and Nurullah 2014). But regardless of the fact of negativity and much criticism from the multiple researches, the theory is responsible for many of the aspects in the current day’s practices of management. This is because without the formation of this theory, the organizational development would not have occurred. To summarize the beliefs and the ideas of the theorists of this theory have always remain pivotal in the current day managements of the business organization by the efficient offering of an alternative view point and set of values which furthermore illustrates the development of employee and their engagement practices (Mostafa, Gould?Williams and Bottomley 2015).
Herzberg's two-factor theory – This theory or the model offers a unique perspective towards the values and the beliefs of the factors of motivation that are extremely crucial in nature. The factors determined by the model or the theory furthermore identifies the level of impact on the job satisfaction and the performances of the employee in a business organization. Herzberg developed a seminal theory of motivation, the two factor theory highlighting two of the main factors. These factors are motivator factors and the hygiene factors (Van den Broeck et al. 2016). The hygiene factors are aimed for the increase in the employee engagement and satisfaction whereas the motivator factors targets on the improvement of the motivation of the employees of a business unit. According the explanation of the theory the team leaders and the managers of a business organization must understand some of the key principles to be successfully implementing employee engagement and increasing employee performances. The factors included in the satisfaction of the production of an individual are different from the level of dissatisfactions since they are opposite to one another. The two factor theory has been successful towards the assumptions of various influential theories representing both the job satisfaction and dissatisfactions.
The successful application of the two factor theory together with the theory X and Y has furthermore resulted in multiple developments in the field of management and motivation that includes the creation of the job enrichments (Caillier 2014). The seminal two factor theory affected the world of business and motivation by introducing a very unconventional way to visit the common situations in the workplace and the pediments.
The concept of the employee engagement is distinctive to the theories of motivation. It offers an alternative perspective and model towards the motivation of the employees in the modern era with the successful determination of the effect or impact on the performance of the employees and their level of job satisfaction. The harsh recessions and the economic climates has forced the business organization towards pursuing practices, relevant theories for the improvement of the motivation and the engagement of the employees in the expectation that these will improve and enhance the engagement and performance level of the employees (Landy and Conte 2016). According to several researches, stress has been one of the emerging factor affective the imperative engagement of the employees in the organization. This is not only affecting the performance of the employees of the organization but also affecting over the overall wellbeing of the employee.
With the increasing competition in the business world and while the economy of the world remain in much turmoil, the notion of survival has become more difficult than the previous era (Kiruja and Mukuru 2018). Hence with the consideration of the above stated factors, a fully engaged team of employees ready to face the challenges that are ever increasing is truly and definitely complex task for a business organization in the current decade. Incorporation of the engagement of the employees together with their full level of satisfaction is truly a difficult task. Hence adhering to the principles and the fundamental elements of the above stated models are truly important and essential for ensuring that the employees are well engaged and motivated to their work in their office.
In the current era, the concept of the employee engagement still lacks comprehensive definition. The debate over the relevance and the effectiveness of the concept of employee engagement and motivation is still on the pages of research facing arguments that are both valid and robust. A review and analysis of various motivational theories and the practices that are stated above have identified that intrinsic motivation plays a very important role or construct in the filed of the improvement of the employee engagement and employee job satisfaction. The concept of self-actualization has the key impact on the motivation and the performance of the employees. It is thus important for the managers of the business organization to utilize the motivational models and theories to improve the engagement, satisfaction, performance of the employees.
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