Literacy Development In Early Childhood Essay

Question:

Discuss about the ECE 230 Language And Literacy Development In Early Childhood.

Answer:

In the case of engaging with the children through dialogue reading approach, I had chosen the book for children “The Giving Tree” which proved to be a very interesting book for the children. I can consider my success in having an effective dialogue reading session with the children as I was able to identify and observe to behavior of the child during the story reading. On the basis of Vukelic, Christie & Enz research, I could understand the level of engagement that the child had with the entire story by the way he was making sounds even before speaking as if he was imitating my voice (Cortes, 2013). I could very well engage with the child during the entire story telling session (As shown in Appendix). This can be concluded by the way the child was attentive towards me and the way he was listening to the story. The child was actively engaged throughout the reading which was very much visible through his expressions. The child was observed to be slapping at the book at regular intervals very frequently as the story was progressing (Biddulph, 2002). He seemed to look at me and the book alternatively as the story proceeded.

I could assess my success in delivering effective dialogue reading which was completely evident from the fact that the child was constantly asking me questions in between the reading which is a good sign denoting the engagement level of the child. I could further assess my engagement and ability to be a successful children story reader by the way I could introduce the text of the story effectively by talking to the child regarding the relevant experience at their age. I was able to provide the child with space and scope of talking, reading and thinking about his way of imagination throughout the session. I was able to make the child predict about the story which gave scope for the development of his imagination. I was also successful in delivering the story and reading it out to the child along with making expressions which were very effective in the delivery of the story. There was proper interaction between the child and me which was one of the strategies that had to be taken care of during the entire delivery of the dialogue approach (Bredekamp, 2016).

Throughput the entire depiction of the story, there were ‘immediate talks’ most of the time. The child was frequently asking questions throughout the session of storytelling. As per DeTemple, The immediate talk was oriented in the direction of answering the literal questions that were asked by the child to me. This also included the labeling of the pictures that were present in the story book (DeTemple, 2001). Further, there were many instances present throughout the entire session of dialogue delivery approach of the story telling to the child where the child had multiple opportunities of engaging in non-immediate talk. It could be observed that the engagement of the child throughout the story telling session was reflecting the receptive knowledge of the child through both the immediate talk and non-immediate talk. He seemed to be interested in the pictures that were present in the bold throughout the story (Bus & Neuman, 2014). He kept on asking questions that were associated with the various types of pictures and images which are considered to be in the immediate talk section. The child was very enthusiastic and interested in getting to know about the characters, colors, letters present in the images.


The non-immediate talk extended beyond the textual content of the story book. It involved the dialogue and conversations between the child and me about the meanings of the word, making of the interferences and predictions. It also included the association of the meanings, interference and predictions with the textual content of the entire story book to the personal experiences of the child (Ewing, Callow & Rushton, 2016). The child, through the immediate and non-immediate talks was able to actively engage in learning the story and the moral behind the story. The immediate and non-immediate talks included the words like “what”, “how”, “when”, “how”, etc. these questions were followed by the answers for the questions, continuous repetition of the what the child kept on speaking, along with providing praise and help (Greenwood et al., 2014). These immediate and non-immediate talks created more space for active engagement of the child in the entire session of the story telling.

The story reading session with the dialogue reading approach facilitated an enjoyment time for the child through the story which was filled with many opportunities for understand and imagine the story with visual clues. The child was not made to read the text form the story form the story book (Ewing, Callow & Rushton, 2016). The activity, expression and the behavior of the child was observed throughout the entire session. The child was matching and resonating with the delivery of the story.

The child was prompted in the entire story telling session which was based on the dialogue reading approach. Selection of the books for children is a very crucial aspect and infact, it is the first step of the entire dialogue reading approach of storytelling to the children. One of the ways for beginning the selection of the books for the children is to seek for the award winning authors and the books. This method should be preferred as the books that are award-wining are selected by the committees which are made up of the selected individuals who have expertise in the literature for children (Greenwood et al., 2014). Another source for selecting the books for the children is the Internet which would provide many options and choices of books for the children with information regarding the date of application, publisher, and cost of the books.

The strategies that I shall adopt while reading next time would include previewing which would include the aspect of learning a text before actually reading it. It will enable me to get an idea about what the text is all about (Genishi & Dyson, 2015). The next strategy that I shall adopt is the contextualization that would include placing the text in biographical, cultural and historical contexts. The next strategy that I would inculcate is questioning for understanding and remembering what the children would think of asking.

The role of the child in writing back could reflect the development of the cognitive abilities, verbal communication of the child with adults and other children along with the narratives of the child. The psychological aspect and conditioning of the child could also be reflected in the writings of the child. The assessment of the writing skills along with the drawings had major links to literacy. It can be stated that there has been tremendous effect of ,media on the cognitive behavior of the child as the child could write and draw things out of his imagination which was majorly influenced by the entertainment media (Hammer et al., 2014).

As per Schickedanz & Casbergue, the writing style and pattern reflected the gain of control of the child regarding the development and implementation of the hand and eye coordination along with motor strength. The speed and fluency of the child could be analyses (Schickedanz & Casbergue, 2004). The drawings of the child were much in coordination with the writings which were primarily implemented according to the imagination of the child. The most driving force for the child was the exploration of ideas along with visualization which is oriented to the child though the dialogue reading session (Ziol?Guest & McKenna, 2014).


Linear learning principle denotes to the aspect of being in resonance with the old, obsolete and contemporary way of learning that includes the textbooks, curriculum, schedules and classrooms. This linear learning system works like a delivery model which acts like a conveyor belt. The delivery of the writing cannot be expected form a child to be in a linear format (Jung et al., 2016). The linear principle would include the correct usage of tense, grammar and synchronicities in the sentences which cannot be done by a small child. The flexibility principle would denote to the way the child created a wide variety of symbols by decorating or repositioning the conventional forms that enabled him to explore the constraints and limits within which every form of the letter varied and was different from each other. However, it still retained its identification.

The flexibility writing principle in this case could be analyzed as that child could discover what is acceptable and what is not acceptable in the writing. He could understand the fact that he had to write and draw according to the story that he was presented with. He produced certain kind of shapes of letters that were recognizable. He also included patterns and numbers in his writing. He did not have any idea regarding the limits of et writing system. The child was still getting confused with the reversal letters like “b” and “d” in his writing (Lane & Wright, 2007). This can straight way denote to the fact that he was much more resonating to be adapting flexibility writing. The writings and drawings by the sign principle would denote to the extent to which the sense of the numbers is comprehended and what the child has learned out of it.

As per Hill, Jones & Schillin, the cognitive ability of the child to be able to perceive the numbers and symbols in the surroundings is reflected through the writings and drawings of the child. It could be analyzed that the child was very much prompt in being close to accurately understanding small numbers and symbols (Hill, Jones & Schilling, 2014). The child was able to discriminate between various types of objects (Xu et al., 2014). The development of the word concept in the child is observed to emerge in a very gradual manner and is relevant in this case (Lederberg, Schick & Spencer, 2013). At this age, the child is learning to read and write. The learning of the child includes the lessons including the use of syllable, word and phoneme.


The order of the word emergence has placed the syllable to be in the first factors that the child was giving attention to. The selection of words had to be taught to the child at this age which was getting reflected in his writings. The child was very prompt at identifying the symbols, names and words by sight. Throughout his conversations, I could identify that the child was very fast in learning from the symbols and had the assumption that any whole symbol was representing the entire word. It could also be perceived that the child could identify and adopt various strategies of seeking various features from any word. It was also observed that the child used such features for the identification of any word. The child has the natural tendency for memorizing the entire word. He could also memorize some of one the salient features of the words. He, however, had difficulty in reading the authentic contents that was not composed primarily as sight words. Phonemic awareness of the child could be associated with the ability of the child to identify, hear and manipulate the sounds in the words which he spoke (Otto, 2015). Throughout the story reading session, the child was very carefully identifying and categorizing sounds and was giving efforts in blending sounds from forming words (Wallach, 2016).

The child was giving attention to sight word through which he was able to the read simply by having a look at the words without him saying much to sound it alphabet by alphabet. He was able to create sight word as he was naturally able to encounter various words that were outside the sight word. He was sounding out the words by pronunciation it aloud. It helped in enhancing the ability of the child in differentiating between what he expected to hear and what he actually heard. The session also helped the child in separating the sound of the words from their actual meaning (Piasta et al., 2015).

The child was also identifying and was able to separate the phoneme. He was recognizing the words that rhymed with each other. He was. However, having a very enjoyable time while getting to identify the phoneme and getting aware of the way every word should be pronounced. He was able to recognize single words in every sentence. He was paying attention to the matching of the identically sounding words at every beginning of the words.

Transcript

Line

Speaker

Utterance

Comment

1

Teacher

I chose the story book named “The Giving Tree” for us to read.

What do you think his book might be about?

Seated side by side on a couch and sharing the book with the child.

Looking at the front cover.

2

Child

Is it about a tree, a boy and a fruit which gives something?

Pointing at the front cover having the picture of a tree.

3

Teacher

Yes, the book is about a tree. How do you know that it is about a tree?

4

Child

There is a picture of a tree on the cover of the book. But there is also a boy. He is there to eat anything.

Pointing out to the picture of the boy on the cover of the book. The child points to the image of the fruit in the cover page of the book.

5

Teacher

Very good. What fruit is it?

6

Child

That is an apple. It is a strawberry! No! It is not a strawberry. It is an apple.

7

Teacher

How can you say that the fruit is an apple? Why not a strawberry?

8

Child

Because the fruit is too big. Strawberry that I ate in my breakfast is a small fruit.

9

Teacher

Yes, it is an apple which is bigger than strawberry. Can we start reading now?

10

Child

Mm, hmm. Turn the page.

He opened the cover and we went to the first page.

11

Teacher

This book is called, The Giving Tree. It is written by Mr. Silverstein

I pointed to the words as I read.

The child was watching intently.

12

Teacher

Once upon a time, there was a tree. The tree kept growing as she saw the little boy who looked just like you. The tree also loved the little boy a lot. The boy went up the hill and climbed into the tree.

Both look at the picture.

13

Child

He could climb a tree!

Child pointing

14

Teacher

Yes, he could.

Looking at the child.

15

Child

Was he not scared??

16

Teacher

No he wasn’t! Every day the boy would come and take up the leaves with his hands to gather the leaves. He used to make crowns out of the leaves. He pretended to be the forest’s king and play the game of king of the forest.

17

Child

I am the king of the forest.

Raising one hand

18

Teacher

He would climb up the trunk of the tree and pick the apples and eat them. He would also play hide and seek around the tree.

19

Child

Wow! Okay!

20

Teacher

When he was tired, he would sleep in the shade of the tree.

21

Child

then

22

Teacher

As 20 years passed by, while the tree was mostly alone, it used to be very sad. Then one day the boy came to the tree. Then the tree said,” Boy, come on! Climb up my branches and swing. The boy who had grown up to a big man replied,” No, I cannot do that anymore. I am too grownup and big to play and climb on you.”

23

Child

Oh!!

Putting palms on his cheeks

24

Teacher

The young man told,” I want to buy many things and have fun. I want to make a lot of money. Do you have a lot of money Giving Tree?”

25

Child

Then what happened?

26

Teacher

The tree helped the boy in making money by giving her apples and branches as time passes by. The greed of the young man kept on growing. The tree kept on giving whatever she could from her own trunk, branches, etc.

25

Child

Then?

26

Teacher

The tree, through her entire lifetime helped the by giving him whatever was possible out of love but the man could not return back anything. At the end of his lifetime, the young man was too tired and wanted to rest in peace with the left over trunk of the tree. Can you tell me what you learned out of the story?

25

Child

The tree loved the boy a lot and she was her best friend till the end.

26

Teacher

Yes, absolutely correct!

References

Biddulph, J., 2002. Guided reading: grounded in theoretical understandings. Steps to Guided Reading: A professional development course for grades, 3.

Bredekamp, S., 2016. Effective practices in early childhood education: Building a foundation. Boston: Pearson.

Bus, A.G. and Neuman, S.B., 2014. Multimedia and literacy development: Improving Achievement for young learners. Routledge.

Cortes, C., 2013. Designing Literacy Rich Classroom Environments for Young Children: A Study of Teachers' Design Processes and Tools. Arizona State University.

DeTemple, J.M., 2001. Parents and children reading books together. Beginning literacy with language, pp.31-51.

Ewing, R., Callow, J. and Rushton, K., 2016. Language and Literacy Development in Early Childhood. Cambridge University Press.

Greenwood, C.R., Carta, J.J., Goldstein, H., Kaminski, R.A., McConnell, S.R. and Atwater, J., 2014. The Center for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood: Developing evidence-based tools for a multi-tier approach to preschool language and early literacy instruction. Journal of Early Intervention Management, 36(4), pp.246-262.

Genishi, C. and Dyson, A.H., 2015. Children, language, and literacy: Diverse learners in diverse times. Teachers College Press.

Hill, C.W., Jones, G.R. and Schilling, M.A., 2014. Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning.

Hammer, C.S., Hoff, E., Uchikoshi, Y., Gillanders, C., Castro, D.C. and Sandilos, L.E., 2014. The language and literacy development of young dual language learners: A critical review. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(4), pp.715-733.

Jung, Y., Zuniga, S., Howes, C., Jeon, H.J., Parrish, D., Quick, H., Manship, K. and Hauser, A., 2016. Improving Latino children's early language and literacy development: key features of early childhood education within family literacy programmes. Early Child Development and Care, 186(6), pp.845-862.

Lane, H.B. and Wright, T.L., 2007. Maximizing the effectiveness of reading aloud. The Reading Teacher, 60(7), pp.668-675.

Lederberg, A.R., Schick, B. and Spencer, P.E., 2013. Language and literacy development of deaf and hard-of-hearing children: successes and challenges. Developmental psychology, 49(1), p.15.

Otto, B., 2015. Literacy development in early childhood: Reflective teaching for birth to age eight. Waveland Press.

Piasta, S.B., Logan, J.A., Pelatti, C.Y., Capps, J.L. and Petrill, S.A., 2015. Professional development for early childhood educators: Efforts to improve math and science learning opportunities in early childhood classrooms. Journal of educational psychology, 107(2), p.407.

Spodek, B. and Saracho, O.N., 2014. Handbook of research on the education of young children. Routledge.

Schickedanz, J.A. and Casbergue, R.M., 2004. Writing in Preschool: Learning to Orchestrate Meaning and Marks. International Reading Association (NJ3).

Wallach, G.P. ed., 2016. Handbook of language and literacy: Development and disorders. Guilford Publications.

Xu, Y., Chin, C., Reed, E. and Hutchinson, C., 2014. The effects of a comprehensive early literacy project on preschoolers’ language and literacy skills. Early Childhood Education Journal, 42(5), pp.295-304.

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