Learning About Organizational Hawthorne Essay

Question:

Discuss the Learning About Organizational Hawthorne?

Answer:

Introducation

Learning about organizational behavior by Hawthorne, Elton, Mayo, and Roethlisberger shades light on management practices of the 1920s (Mayo, 2014). These are crucial in understanding attitudes and behavior in the organization. Complex organizations today have linear processes, which help managers to resolve conflicts. This was not the case in the 19th and 20th Centuries. During my employment period, I came across an encounter in which two employees had a disagreement about their job roles. Both employees worked in the same department and team. However, one felt that she had to go the extra mile in accomplishing her tasks. However, the other one was always the least dedicated. As the manager, I sought to find out the problem only to realize that they had different personalities. In support of Linda Hill (Hill, 2003), becoming a manager requires a mastery of management approaches. I developed a new identity from an individual identity to a manager identity as a sign of professional growth. Before I could solve the conflict between the two employees, I had to listen. Managerial tasks today are different from traditional supervisors. Over time, I have learnt to respect other people’s identity. The fact that people can manage tasks differently and effectively gives me confidence to delegate the tasks.

Management is about planning organizing controlling, and leading. It helps the manager to channel resources in the right direction, and enhancing performance. Managers have a hard time making decisions, informing and leading people (Mintzberg, Ahlstrand, & Lamplel, 2010). I represent the company through different forums such as stakeholders meeting and PR events. Within the organization, I act as a liaison and employees respect me. Being a leader enables me to make decisions, allocate resources within different departments and I negotiate with the managers on areas where there are gaps (Mintberg, 2011). Today, the roles of a manager require technical and conceptual skills. I took a business management course for skills in global management. As a modern day manager, I believe in leading than supervising because championing a vision requires interpersonal relationships. I compare these to Fredrick Taylor’s concerns for the exploitation of workers revolutionized the industry in the 19th Century (Taylor, 2004). As the father of scientific management, he suggested precise thinking in order to develop solutions. My style of leadership borrows largely from change creation and empowering others. This approach is better because it encourages employees to work as a team and not compete. Competition breeds conflict and delegation of roles helps me to empower employees rather than doing it for them.


In line with Fredrick Taylor, continuous improvement in management is a better approach to management because it improves things. Being a workaholic is a weakness because it hinders my ability to empower other people. This would be a problem in a hierarchical organization where Max Weber’s approach on bureaucracy or red tape management appears (Hughes, 2012). Henri Fayol’s administrative principles encourage unity of command and division of labor to classify structures and design communication approaches for better functions. Human and business studies also shaped the industry by introducing human centered approaches. The Hawthorne electric plant studies is an example of a human focused management dedicated to making people better for productivity (Kiechel, 2012). This led to humanist psychologists like Maslow who propagated the use of motivation. Behaviorists and systems approaches merged to highlight the integration of people and behavior. Management science as a segment of leadership involves computerized management styles in operations management (supply chain), quality control, production-planning, forecasting, scenario planning. It facilitates for the installation of ideal management systems for maximum output.

Understanding self and others (607 Words)

Having workd as a manager in one of the banking institution, I could not help but notice change as a continuous process in the company. New directors came, some employees retired and some managers lost their jobs. I had the opportunity to work as a leader in a mid-level management post. This had interesting opportunities because I was in charge of effecting change in the company (Tasler, 2017). I agree that change is a difficult process but it is necessary and unavoidable in life. In this organization, change had a plan. We planned for training and sometimes it would take months or a year to complete the process. As a professional, I had to change my tactics of managing organizations. After learning about management practices and leadership styles, I chose to take a transformational approach in order to survive in a changing environment. Managers currently face challenges in management because of personality differences. After self-awareness practices, I agree with Samson & Daft ( 2015) who says that leadership is about influencing people to attain certain goals. While working at the corporate department, I clearly saw a demonstration of Henri Fayols four functions of leadership. The department had resources set aside for its planning, organizing, leading and controlling units (Fayol, 2016). In my opinion, leadership is a desirable element in an organization.

I prefer to call myself a leader than a manager because of my abilities. I innovate, I am good with ideas and I do not like imitating others. I came to this conclusion after taking lessons about the difference between leadership and management (Ratcliffe, 2013). Leadership is an act of getting people to perform tasks while management is the control pf resources. I noticed that good managers at the bank were those whose teams were always performing. However, some managers had challenges leading people their performance was dismal. Management revolves around different functions. From experience, planning helped me to select the best action plan for the organization goals. This helped me to lead and organize people in different tasks. (Cherry, K;, 2017) I also used controls such as rewards to motivate the teams and individual s towards performance. Measuring performance is good for efficiency and effectiveness and my idea is to use these as yardstick measures for employee management (Kerzner, 2013). Performing efficiently includes the reduction of wastage in resource use. My colleagues emphasized on efficiency as the new management tactic. I recall allocating roles according to competence and offering further training instead of hiring new employees for additional tasks. It is more effective and efficient to offer training instead of hiring new workers.

The organization I worked for was a multinational company and the experience gave me exposure working in a complex environment at a global level. The high competition in an international setup creates many uncertainties in the market environment. As a result, organizations place high emphasis on performance (Christensen, 2012). In my case, I relied on market research in order to become sensitive to consumer trends. Employee behavior is at the center of my leadership agenda because there are different theories about understanding people. One of these is the psychological understanding of motivation. In my leadership style, I use theoretical applications because accuracy in decision-making is important. Therefore, it is important to have a comprehensive analysis of social, psychology and organizational culture (Spillane, 2012). I also noticed that change is part of modern organizations. As a leader, I am a visionary and I look forward to leading efficient organizations made of productive people. As a modern day manager, I will make use of my soft skills including self-motivation and teamwork cope with change.

Organizational Culture (672 Words)

Organizational culture has values that every member of the organization believes in. It connects beliefs and understandings. In my opinion sustainability as a practice is like artefacts, dress code, ceremonies and symbols of the organization, which represent an image that people can use to connect to the organization. That is why I believe that the main values that individuals embrace are what characterizes the organizations. Leaders have a role of encouraging individuals to embrace positive or ethical values (Hill, 2003). This is better than simple rules written on a website or at the lounge of the organization. I have worked in organizations that have had the same cultural values for ages. This is because of the company’s internal and external strategies, which target the development of the organization. I like the induction process because it helps new employees to get in and fit in. However, sometimes employees resists to the culture, especially if it is oppressive. In such a case, culture change is necessary. Sustainability is a global culture where diversity is expected.

In the case of a merger, a manager needs to understand the most important strategies for the group. This is the best way to influence change and success in the organization. Managing the organization means setting boundaries and planning as well as forecasting. Effective insight into the environment enables the organization to carry out advertising and public relations effectively. Managing companies by mutual trust allows competitor businesses to combine for stronger effect. I have gained deeper insight into the advantages and disadvantages of mergers, franchising and joint ventures because of these. As a manager in international organization, I understand the challenges in the global environment and what needs to be done for success in different (Fox, 2016). Ethics is important in business because it solves ethical dilemma. Employees have individual standards, social norms, professional and organizational approaches. These might conflict with each other causing hindrances. Organizational behavior may be legal or illegal depending on outcome it has with the business relations. Unethical behavior includes discrimination, defrauding and malicious advertising. As a manager I know the most critical for me is the legal perspective and not my own or people’s. Philosophical ethics provides guidelines on how to make decisions (Mintberg, 2011).

Utilitarianism is about the greatest good but it might not always work for the better. All people of the world believe that sustainability has long-term benefits because of the values it gives. Individualism guides moral action. As a leader, it is my responsibility to balance employee’s needs and the organizations needs in order to prevent conflict of interest. Procedures set rules to guide this interaction. I am also keen on compensation justice because most employees leave the organization because of poor pay. It is my belief that motivational strategies should focus on professional competencies and individual’s achievement. In an effort to make the organization successful, I also note the importance of sustainability as an ethical factor in an organization. Focusing on stages of moral development, I borrow from stages of preconvention, conventional, and post conventional, which guides on decision-making. In this case, I have an insight on how to use my leadership style in the management of employee behavior. Some employees require transformational leadership while others need a team-oriented manager. This may vary according to whether the employee is keen on the tasks or the rewards or participation. Decision-making guides are important for managers and leaders too. They support the truth in order to reduce corporate scandal. The example brings to mind segments of ethical leadership, which becomes a reality during practice. Kohlberg 1976, which discuss the Heinz Dilemma, 3 (Gibbs, 1977). Customers prefer to buy from reputable organizations and employees prefer to work in organizations with respect. Milton freedman offered a triple dimensional approach to businesses identify (Carroll, 1979). From my research, successful companies highlights strategic business measure, depth and business environment and culture (Samson & Daft, 2015).

Ethics, Social responsibility and sustainability (663 Words)

Sustainability as an important part of management in the workplace looks at the population growth, consumption per person, resource management and climatic concerns (Ashby, Leat, & Hudson-Smith, 2012). This widens the inequality gap reducing the focus on materialism. By encouraging ethical practices, it influences leaders to live by the discipline instead of external influence. The use of technology adds value to the organization through improved performance like safety measures. Technology influences decisions on quality and improved functions. As a leader, I cannot ignore the role of emerging trend like sustainability in the workplace. The Increasing use of digital devices in position for performances. Mackenzie notes this a replacement of human capacity hence loss of jobs. All industries have traces of technology in its communication, customer care and task management. At the same time, I realize that technology is giving people opportunities. Professionals can now apply for global jobs through online adverts and portals. From management being production focused to people centered gave people motivation in good working environment. Improvement of output was evident in improved organizations. Drastic improvements brought changes including the reduction on workers demonstration and production plants became more efficient.

A number of research on different business systems brought to, light the essence of human contribution to production. Over time, managers began to think about ways to make changes in an organization. For example, what do organizations need in order to compete and what difference do they make? Instead of thinking the worst of employees, I think good employers need to view these as important. The entrepreneurship era or fourth industrial revolution suggests means self-management and self-leadership focus on the individual. People are different and see the world in different perspectives ( TEDx Talks;, 2017). People are part of effective management and they have different attitudes, perception, personality differences and emotional intelligence. Having worked in a global organization, I met people from different value beliefs. In the process, I agree that caring for the environment has two sides of the coin. It is an ethical practice for all organizations as well as an organizational strategy. Diversity is also important today and it is evident in cross-cultural organizations.


Human resource management connects people to company objectives in order to connect their expertise, focus and commitment. For some companies, sustainable plans focus on making employee environment better. In a group, which is culturally diverse, stereotyping is common and it affects relationships (Yang & Konrad, 2011). As a leader, I have a responsibility of managing the diversity by helping employees to change their attitude about people. Bias leads to discrimination in the work force based on race, religion, social or other differences. Perception as a topic of discussion brings out the psychologists notion of field dependence, which states that people view the same things differently. However, this does not make them right. Perception distortion helps managers to look at two sides of a coin. The course open my eyes to being objective when making decisions because there could be self-deception, optimism, self-fulfilling prophesy or confirmation bias. The world expects leaders to show wisdom so a manager needs to avoid giving a negative impression management. This includes matters of ethics and values. Being a leader calls for having concern for people. I believe in giving a good impression although sometimes people could mistake kindness for weakness. In the use of sustainability as a Corporate Social Responsibility, perception becomes an advantage with different outlooks according to the organization (Larceneux, Moreau, & Parguel, 2011). Individual differences are important for learning, and helping others to become self-aware. A good leader is self-aware first because those who cannot manage themselves cannot manage others. Organizational strategy connects people and the context of the organization (Geert, 2017). Different people interact with the organization namely, the competitors, suppliers, labour market. These interact within the environment, which is technological, sociocultural, economic, legal and international. As a leader, I should be aware of the production technology involved, organization structure, corporate culture and employees.

References

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