Leadership And Management: Measurements And Negative Impacts Essay


Discuss about the Leadership and Management for Measurements and Negative Impacts.



Management and leadership are different qualities even though used interchangeably. Leadership is definable as the practical and social skills that encompass the capability of an individual to offer guidance the people who voluntarily participate in an activity (Mumford, Todd, Higgs & McIntosh 2017, p. 24). Management on the other hand, is definable as the organization and coordination of production resources in an organization to achieve a specific goal (Welch-Devine 2012). Both leadership and managers are focused on specific goals; however, it is observable that managers tend to have their titles as honorary, paid to achieve a goal with an authoritarian style. Therefore, managers tend to have people work for them, while leaders are observable as charismatic individuals who guide the people transformational way.

It is very common that most business organizations don’t perform as expected mainly because of over-management and poor leadership by the authority (Candido & Santos 2015, p.241). A number of the failures are due to the fact that most of the managers are under pressure to incite their staff to perform the assigned duties as most of them are more focused on the results and tend to forget about the team feelings. Workers form the primary functional tool in every organization, therefore losing a contact with them or having a weak relationship eventually pose a company to a verge of failure.

Real Leadership according to the path-goal theory developed by Robert House in 1971 which insist that the behaviors of leaders have a direct influence on the participation, satisfaction, motivation and the overall performance of the followers (Malik, Aziz, & Hassan 2014, p.173) . The theory identifies the following; achievement-oriented, participative, supportive and directive as the leadership approaches that are more influenceable to a successful organization as leaders are flexible and ready to change their styles depending on the situation. The article therefore, looks at the leadership styles approaches and their effects on the overall behavior of employees.

Leadership styles

There different leadership styles that are used to influence staffs to work more efficiently to achieve a specified goal (Burns 2017). These are; Autocratic Leadership focuses on the authority and power given to an individual allowing them to make all the decisions on their own and then communicate them to the subordinates; therefore the communication is a one-way route. Democratic leadership focuses on including the subordinates in every stage of decision-making process even though the leader holds the final responsibility. Unlike the autocratic Leadership, the communication is both downward and upward. Team leadership entails the creation of a clear picture of its future, what it stands for and where it is heading to hence the clear vision provides a strong sense of the organization’s objective. Cross-Cultural leadership is common in societies formed by different cultures like most the international organizations that employ various nationalists.

Facilitative leadership focuses more on the measurements and the outcomes rather than the skills of the leader whereby the leader will either facilitate the functionability of the staffs (Burns 2017). Laissez-faire Leadership is a style that transfers the authority to the employees whereby they are allowed to work in accordance to choice of their styles, while crating minimal interference. Transactional Leadership insists on the status quo of the organization, whereby the manager gives the final directions to the subordinate by clarifying for them their expectations and awarding those that are compliant. Coaching Leadership is the process of teaching and monitoring the followers. The leaders are responsible for identifying aspects and stages that require improvement through motivating and inspiring the followers. Charismatic Leadership is a style whereby the leaders manifest the revolutionary power to transform the followers’ values, and beliefs and the Visionary Leadership style involves the recognition of the leadership steps, methods and process are obtainable through and within the followers by transforming their visions into reality.

It is observable that most of the organizations tend to fail mainly because of the poor management and lack of leadership skills. Most of the managers always fail to influence positive behaviors among the staffs since they are more focused on the result, aggressive and demanding rather than the human element of the company (Candido & Santos 2015, p. 243) .For the productivity of an employee, there should be development and empowerment by the leaders through the strategies and skills, so as to perform to a higher level (Eacott 2011). The improved individual performance eventually boosts the overall organizational performance. Most of the managers also fail to show the leadership skills like offering better conflict resolutions, forming a collaborate and efficient work team.

There are four different leadership approaches identified by the Path-goal Theory which is; directive, achievement-oriented, participative and supportive approaches (Malik, Aziz & Hassan 2014, p. 174). Directive approach direction is more the same with the autocratic style of leadership whereby the leader commands the subordinates on what and how is required to be done and without their opinion. The directive leadership approach is standard in traditional companies that respect the seniority and experience for example in Japan and China and most of the national militaries. Supportive leadership is an empathetic approach whereby the leaders are focused on delivering guidance and motivation to the follower to achieve individual development and the objective of the organization. The supportive approach is common in game activities; whereby the coaches and trainers help the players to reach their goal of becoming the best hence assist the teams against their opponents. The participative approach entails the involvement of the employees in goal setting, problem-solving and team building, though the final decision lies upon the leader. For example, in Toyota Motor in North America, participative style applied by Jim Lentz who is the chief executive officer. Jim Lentz offers guidance to the team by addressing the challenges and failures together with the employees. Finally, the achievement-oriented approach is whereby the leader has a conviction that the followers can do better and therefore, sets up the challenging goals and offer training to the members to achieve better results.

In all the leadership paths it is observable that the main aims are to achieve a goal, even though the supportive, participative and achievement-oriented brings the followers close to the leader's ideas, the directive approach tends to make the followers more subject to the goal by not allowing their opinions. The directive approach takes charge of everything by asserting authority from the start in set standards.


In conclusion, most organizations are under led and over managed as most of the managers aim at giving instructions to achieve goals rather than focus the basic factor of production; the workers issues that when not addressed properly leads to reduced moral and bad behaviors of workers. Therefore, managers need to be reformed to adopt the leadership styles and approaches to create employee’s satisfaction thereafter increasing their performance and the success of the organization.

List of References

Burns, W. (2017). A Descriptive Literature Review of Harmful Leadership Styles: Definitions, Commonalities, Measurements, Negative Impacts, and Ways to Improve These Harmful leadership Styles. Creighton Journal of Interdisciplinary Leadership, 3(1), p.33.

C?ndido, C. and Santos, S. (2015). Strategy implementation: What is the failure rate?. Journal of Management & Organization, 21(02), pp.237-262.

Eacott, S. (2011). Leadership strategies: re-conceptualising strategy for educational leadership. School Leadership & Management, 31(1), pp.35-46.

Holtz, B. and Harold, C. (2012). Effects of leadership consideration and structure on employee perceptions of justice and counterproductive work behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(4), pp.492-519.

Malik, S., Aziz, S. and Hassan, H. (2014). Leadership Behavior and Acceptance of Leaders by Subordinates: Application of Path Goal Theory in Telecom Sector. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 5(2), pp.170-175.

Mumford, M., Todd, E., Higgs, C. and McIntosh, T. (2017). Cognitive skills and leadership performance: The nine critical skills. The Leadership Quarterly, 28(1), pp.24-39.

Welch-Devine, M. (2012). Searching for Success: Defining Success in Co-Management. Human Organization, 71(4), pp.358-370.

Winterton, J. (2013). Book review: Management and the Dominance of Managers: An Inquiry into Why and How Managers Rule Our OrganizationsDiefenbachThomas, Management and the Dominance of Managers: An Inquiry into Why and How Managers Rule Our Organizations, Routledge: New York, 2009; 272 pp.: 9780415443350, ?110.00 (hbk); 9780415888684, ?26.00 (pbk). Management Learning, 44(2), pp.200-204.

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