Diabetes Mellitus occur due to the disorders in metabolic processes and if left without treatment, it might lead to very high concentration of sugar in the blood called glucose. The management of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) for both type 1 and 2 requires the addressing of several goals which primarily includes the glycemic control and is aimed at restoring the metabolism of carbohydrate to a normal state (Shrivastava, Shrivastava & Ramasamy, 2013). Maintenance of the glycemic control in the patients with DM prevents the macrovascular and microvascular complications that are associated with the disease. This essay will critically appraise three research articles for determining the management of DM.
To demonstrate the argument, Shahar et al. (2016) carried out a cross-sectional study for determining the influence of self-motivation and family support towards the glycemic control and dietary compliance among the outpatients of DM type 2. The authors provided a clear statement of the aims of the research which include the management of DM in an experimental condition. About 35 study subjects were involved in the experimental settings of Malaysia wherein fasting blood glucose levels were obtained for studying them. This was followed by data collection by face to face interviews for obtaining dietary intake and socio-demographic information. Analysis of the collected data required extensive calculations and therefore, the selected quantitative method was appropriate to investigate the management of DM. The aim of the research was well addressed from the research findings as the study highlighted the critical issues related to the poor compliance to diet as it was associated with social support and self-motivation which was well supported by the research design. The data analysis was done by using the SPSS software for the purpose of descriptive analysis to find out the correlation between self-motivation and family support with dietary compliance. The authors provided a clear statement of the findings as it stated that family support and self-motivation are the crucial factors that can help to increase the compliance towards the counseling of diet and the management of DM. The research was valuable from the point that it was successful to establish the fact that DM can be managed without the external interventions and rigorous processes and its implications will be fruitful for the people suffering from the disease.
To carry on with the argument, Carallo et al. (2015) tested the effectiveness of an integrated care program for the management of DM type 2 that was compared with ordinary diligence. The authors employed a new organizational model named ‘Progetto Diabete Calabria’ for the management of DM which was based on the empowerment of general practitioners by using electronic health records that are web based. The authors provided a clear statement of the aims of the research as they aimed to verify the efficacy of the organizational model in association with the ordinary care in a clinical setting. For addressing the research aims, the research design was appropriate as telemedicine has a profound effect on the clinical management of the patients with the exchange of medical data among the consultants and general practitioners. The strategic method of employing voice or video consultation was also crucial to maintain the contact between the hospital consultants and the general physicians. Data collection was done in a way that addressed the research issue of management of DM as the researchers collected the biochemical and clinical parameters for statistical analysis of the collected data using SPSS software. There was a clear statement of the study findings as the authors demonstrated that the program of healthcare is based on the empowerment of the general physicians was found to be equally effective to the standard management of DM. However, the study had the limitation that the participation of the study samples was on a voluntary basis for the patients and patients. Therefore, only motivated participants were selected for the study and the findings were not implicated on to the general population for the management of DM.
On a similar note, Catherine et al. (2014) carried out a cohort study for determining the patient intervention of self-management that was web based on the clinical and psychological outcomes for the management of DM type 2. The authors carried out the study as they considered that self-management training for the patients could be an effective strategy for the improvement of the quality of care and for doing this, they employed qualitative individual interviews and repeated measures modeling. The selected research design of the quantitative study was appropriately framed for addressing the aims of the research. The data collection process included in-depth interviews for exploring the mediators, weaknesses, strengths and acceptability of using websites and this procedure completely addressed the research issue. The selected research design was user centered design as the intervention procedure involved behavior change strategies and evidence-based content that addressed the aim of the research. The data analysis was carried out using linear mixed models which were sufficiently rigorous to demonstrate the management of DM by web based interventions. The ethical issues have been taken into consideration as the study was approved by the research ethics board however, the study did not adequately consider the relationship between the participants and the researchers. The study had the limitation that the concerns of competing health have been identified as the barrier to the self-management process that was web based and the design was non-randomized. The research is valuable from the aspect that web services are used by people worldwide for health information and therefore, this study can be effective for self-management of DM.
From the critiqued studies, it was found that the management of DM can be done using different approaches and strategies. Apart from these strategies, self-management of DM type 2 can be done with exercise and dietary modifications, regular monitoring of the complications and self-monitoring of the levels of blood glucose (Zatalia & Sanusi, 2013). The prime goal of the management of DM is to prevent the complication development and elimination of symptoms. Controlling blood pressure and glycemia comprises of the microvascular risk reduction and smoking cessation, control of hypertension and lipids and glycemia control comprises of the macrovascular risk reduction.
Carallo, C., Scavelli, F. B., Cipolla, M., Merante, V., Medaglia, V., Irace, C., ... & Calabria, P. D. (2015). Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus through Telemedicine. PloS one, 10(5), e0126858.
Catherine, H. Y., Parsons, J. A., Mamdani, M., Lebovic, G., Hall, S., Newton, D., ... & Straus, S. E. (2014). A web-based intervention to support self-management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effect on self-efficacy, self-care and diabetes distress. BMC medical informatics and decision making, 14(1), 1.
SHAHAR, S., FAKHRUDDIN, M., NIK, N. N. I., HUI, K. J., SUHAIMI, S., FARHANA, N., ... & IBRAHIM, N. (2016). Family Support and Self-Motivation Influence Dietary Compliance and Glycaemic Control among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Outpatients. Malaysian Journal of Health Sciences/Jurnal Sains Kesihatan Malaysia, 14(2).
Shrivastava, S. R., Shrivastava, P. S., & Ramasamy, J. (2013). Role of self-care in management of diabetes mellitus. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 12(1), 1.
Zatalia, S. R., & Sanusi, H. (2013). The role of antioxidants in the pathophysiology, complications, and management of diabetes mellitus. Acta medica Indonesiana, 45(2), 141-147.