The project management methodology refers to the complete process that includes initiation, planning, execution and closure (Kerzner, 2013). There are several methodologies from which a single one has to be chosen by the project manager. The chosen methodology serves as a model for the project. The selection of the methodology is based completely on the characteristics of the project.
Role of Methodology in Project Management:
The roles of the methodologies in the project management are as following.
- It allows the project managers to run the project systematically, effectively, efficiently and comprehensively (Schwalbe, 2015).
- It provides confidence to the clients, senior manager, partners and many others that large projects can be delivered with profit by the organization.
- Through following each step of the methodology the project manager can run any undertaken project successfully (Kerzner, 2013).
The Project Management Methodologies:
PMBOK: There are confusions that it is a true project management methodology. Though there are some organizations that make use of the PMBOK for managing the projects (Karaman, & Kurt, 2015). The methodology consists of five stages such as initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing. These groups are agreed upon by the Project Management Institute or PMI.
Prince 2: It can be also said as the Projects in Controlled Environments. This methodology is processed based. According to the Prince 2 methodology every project must contain some basic protocols such as a controlled and organized initiation, middle and end (Saad et al., 2014).
SDLC: SDLC or software development life cycle is a process of altering or developing an application (Ahmed, Forster & Dandekar, 2013). The methodology consists of some predefined planned actions.
Waterfall: The model is the first one to be introduced in the industry. It can be also referred to as the linear-sequential life cycle model (Mahalakshmi & Sundararajan, 2013). Before jumping on to the next phase the project manager must carefully complete the current process as there is no way to get back to the previous process.
Agile: Agile is a software development life cycle model. The agile gives most priority to the requirements of the project (Ahmed, Forster & Dandekar, 2013). If a project is being developed with the guidance of agile then any change of scope can be incorporated in the project.
Waterfall Vs. Agile:
This is a sequential design process.
It is an iterative as well as team-based development.
The requirements have to be collected at the planning phase (Balaji & Murugaiyan, 2012).
Supports change of requirements.
One process to another
1. The project manager can go to the next process only if the current process is completed (Grogan & Kennedy, 2013).
2 Going back to previous process are not possible.
1. The project manager can go back to the previous process as it supports change of requirements.
Change of requirement
Does not support this option. If found any change of requirement of scope then the project has to started from the beginning.
Supports the change of scope or requirement (Balaji & Murugaiyan, 2012).
Software development life cycle
Software development life cycle
Methodologies and Processes Relate to the Project Life Cycle:
Figure 1: Waterfall Model Processes
(Source: Grogan & Kennedy, 2013)
Requirement collecting and analysis: The potential requirements of the project have to be collected and documented in this project. The documentation is done in specific document, the requirement specification document.
System Design: The system design is conducted on the basis of the requirements that have been collected in the previous phase (Grogan & Kennedy, 2013).
Implementation: According to the designed system small units of the project will be developed. The integration of the units will be carried out in the next stage.
Integration and Testing: At first, the testing of the distinct units is done. After the units successfully pass the testing they are integrated (Balaji & Murugaiyan, 2012).
Deployment of system: After the completion of the functional and non-functional testing the deployment is done in the consumer environment.
Maintenance: As the consumer can face issues after using the system, the maintenance is provided to make the system up and running all the time.
Planning: In this phase the planning of the outline of the process is carried out.
Requirement analysis: The functional and non-functional requirements are gathered and examined in this phase.
Design: The design is designed according to the analyzed requirement (Grogan & Kennedy, 2013).
Development: The system is developed on the agreed upon requirements.
Testing: Testing of the developed system is carried out.
Deploying: The system is deployed to the consumer server.
The processes are carried out after receiving new requirements. Each of the complete phase is called integration.
Ahmed, Z., Helfrich-Forster, C., & Dandekar, T. (2013). Integrating Formal UML Designs and HCI Patterns with Spiral SDLC in DroLIGHT Implementation. Recent Patents on Computer Science, 6(2), 85-98.
Balaji, S., & Murugaiyan, M. S. (2012). Waterfall vs. V-Model vs. Agile: A comparative study on SDLC. International Journal of Information Technology and Business Management, 2(1), 26-30.
Drury-Grogan, M. L., & Kennedy, D. M. (2013). Highlighting Communication Activities and Inefficiencies Between Agile vs. Waterfall Methods: An Agent Based Model of Knowledge Sharing. In 8th Pre-ICIS International Research Workshop on Information Technology Project Management (IRWITPM 2013)(p. 46).
Karaman, E., & Kurt, M. (2015). Comparison of project management methodologies: prince 2 versus PMBOK for it projects. International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering Research, 4(4), 572-579.
Kerzner, H. R. (2013). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.
Mahalakshmi, M., & Sundararajan, M. (2013). Traditional SDLC Vs Scrum Methodology–A Comparative Study. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 3(6), 192-196.
Saad, S., Ibrahim, A., Asma, O., Khan, M. S., & Akhter, J. (2014). PRINCE2 MEthodology: AN INNovAtIvE WAy foR IMPRovINg PERfoRMANCE of MAlAysIAN AutoMotIvE INdustRy. The Journal of Technology Management and Technopreneurship (JTMT), 1(1).
Schwalbe, K. (2015). Information technology project management. Cengage Learning.