this informative article is about fear, hatred of, or prejudice towards Muslims or Islam. For spiritual persecution of Muslims, see Persecution of Muslims. The scholarly critique of Islam, see Criticism of Islam. For the scholarly criticism of Muhammad, see critique of Muhammad.

Islamophobia could be the fear, hatred of, or prejudice contrary to the Islamic religion or Muslims generally speaking,[1][2][3] specially when viewed as a geopolitical force or the way to obtain terrorism.[4][5][6]

The word was first used in early twentieth century, rising as a neologism within the 1970s. Its usage increased during the 1980s and 1990s and reached public policy prominence aided by the report by the Runnymede Trust's Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia (CBMI) entitled Islamophobia: A Challenge for all of us All (1997). The introduction of the definition of ended up being justified by the report's evaluation that «anti-Muslim prejudice has exploded so considerably therefore rapidly recently that a brand new item in vocabulary is needed».[7] This is of the term continues to be debated, and some notice as problematic.

The complexities and traits of Islamophobia are subjects of debate. Some commentators have actually posited a rise in Islamophobia caused by the September 11 assaults, the rise of Islamic State of Iraq and also the Levant, alongside terror attacks in Europe additionally the usa by Islamic extremists. Some have actually linked it because of the increased presence of Muslims in the United States and in the European Union, while others view it as a reply toward emergence of a worldwide Muslim identity.


There are a great many other possible terms that are additionally utilized in order to make reference to negative feelings and attitudes towards Islam and Muslims, particularly anti-Muslimism, intolerance against Muslims, anti-Muslim prejudice, anti-Muslim bigotry, hatred of Muslims, anti-Islamism, Muslimophobia, demonisation of Islam, or demonisation of Muslims. In German, Islamophobie (fear) and Islamfeindlichkeit (hostility) are utilized. The Scandinavian term Muslimhat literally means «hatred of Muslims».[8]

When discrimination towards Muslims has placed an increased exposure of their spiritual affiliation and adherence, it was termed Muslimphobia, the choice form of Muslimophobia,[9] Islamophobism,[10] antimuslimness and antimuslimism.[11][12][13] Individuals who discriminate against Muslims generally are termed Islamophobes, Islamophobists,[14]anti-Muslimists,[15]antimuslimists,[16]islamophobiacs,[17]anti-Muhammadan,[18]Muslimphobes or its alternate spelling of Muslimophobes,[19] while people motivated by a particular anti-Muslim agenda or bigotry have been referred to as being anti-mosque,[20]anti-Shiites.[21] (or Shiaphobes[22]), anti-Sufism[23] (or Sufi-phobia)[24] and anti-Sunni (or Sunniphobes).[25]

Etymology and definitions

The word Islamophobia is a neologism[26] created from Islam and -phobia, a Greek suffix utilized in English to make «nouns aided by the feeling 'fear of – – ', 'aversion to – – '.»[27]

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, your message means «excessive dislike or concern with Islam, esp. as a governmental force; hostility or prejudice towards Muslims» and is attested in English as soon as 1923.[28] The University of Ca at Berkeley's Islamophobia analysis & Documentation venture suggested this working definition: «Islamophobia is a contrived fear or prejudice fomented by the existing Eurocentric and Orientalist global energy structure. It's inclined to a perceived or real Muslim threat through maintenance and extension of existing disparities in economic, governmental, social and cultural relations, while rationalizing the necessity to deploy violence as something to produce 'civilizational rehab' of the target communities (Muslim or otherwise). Islamophobia reintroduces and reaffirms an international racial structure whereby resource circulation disparities are maintained and extended.»[29]

Debate on the term and its limitations

In 1996, the Runnymede Trust established the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, chaired by Gordon Conway, the vice-chancellor regarding the University of Sussex. The Commission's report, Islamophobia: difficult for Us All, was posted in November 1997 by your home Secretary, Jack Straw. Into the Runnymede report, Islamophobia was defined as «an perspective or world-view involving an unfounded dread and dislike of Muslims, which leads to practices of exclusion and discrimination.»[30]Johannes Kandel, in a 2006 remark wrote that Islamophobia «is a vague term which encompasses every conceivable real and thought act of hostility against Muslims», and profits to argue that five of criteria submit by the Runnymede Trust are invalid.[31]

In 2008, a workshop on 'Thinking Thru Islamophobia' was held within University of Leeds, organized by the Centre for Ethnicity and Racism Studies, the individuals included S.Sayyid, Abdoolkarim Vakil, Liz Fekete, and Gabrielle Maranci among others. The symposium proposed a definition of Islamophobia which rejected the thought of Islamophobia as being the product of shut and available views of Islam, and centered on Islamophobia as performative which problematized Muslim agency and identity. The symposium had been an earlier attempt to bring insights from critical battle theory, postcolonial and decolonial thought to keep on the concern of Islamophobia.[32]

At a 2009 symposium on «Islamophobia and Religious Discrimination», Robin Richardson, a previous manager associated with Runnymede Trust[33] additionally the editor of Islamophobia: difficult for people all,[34] said that «the disadvantages regarding the term Islamophobia are significant» on seven different grounds, including that it suggests it's just a «severe psychological illness» impacting «only a tiny minority of people»; that utilization of the term makes those to whom it really is used «defensive and defiant» and absolves an individual of «the obligation of trying to comprehend them» or trying to alter their views; it signifies that hostility to Muslims is divorced from facets particularly pores and skin, immigrant status, fear of fundamentalism, or political or economic conflicts; it conflates prejudice against Muslims in one single's own country with dislike of Muslims in nations with which the West is incompatible; that it does not distinguish between folks who are against all religion from individuals who dislike Islam specifically; and that the issue being described is hostility to Muslims, «an ethno-religious identification within European countries», in place of hostility to Islam. Nevertheless, he argued that the term is here to keep, and that it is critical to define it precisely.[35]

The precise definition of Islamophobia is still discussed with academics like Chris Allen stating that it lacks a clear meaning.[36][37][38][39][40][41]According to Erik Bleich, in their article «Defining and Researching Islamophobia», even though definitions tend to be more specific, there is certainly still significant variation inside accurate formulations of Islamophobia. As with parallel ideas like homophobia or xenophobia, Islamophobia connotes a broader group of negative attitudes or emotions fond of folks of groups as a result of identified membership in a definite category.[42]Mattias Gardell defines Islamophobia as «socially reproduced prejudices and aversion to Islam and Muslims, along with actions and practices that attack, exclude or discriminate against individuals on basis they are or identified to be Muslim and be related to Islam».[43]

Speaker at demonstration of effort We don't desire Islam inside Czech Republic on 14 March 2015 in České Budějovice, Czech Republic


As against being a mental or individualistic phobia, according to professors of religion Peter Gottschalk and Gabriel Greenberg, «Islamophobia» connotes a social anxiety about Islam and Muslims.[44][45] Some social researchers have adopted this meaning and developed instruments determine Islamophobia in kind of fearful attitudes towards, and avoidance of, Muslims and Islam,[46][47] arguing that Islamophobia should «essentially be comprehended as an affective section of social stigma towards Islam and Muslims, namely fear».[47](p2)


See additionally: New racism

Several scholars think about Islamophobia to be a form of xenophobia or racism. A 2007 article in Journal of Sociology defines Islamophobia as anti-Muslim racism and a continuation of anti-Asian, anti-Turkic and anti-Arab racism.[48][49][50][51] Within their publications Deepa Kumar and Junaid Rana have actually argued that formation of Islamophobic discourses has paralleled the development of other styles of racial bigotry.[52]Similarly, John Denham has drawn parallels between contemporary Islamophobia and antisemitism regarding the 1930s,[53] therefore have Maud Olofsson,[54] and Jan Hjärpe, and others.[55][56]

Others have questioned the expected relationship between Islamophobia and racism. Jocelyne Cesari writes that «academics continue to be debating the legitimacy of term and questioning just how it varies from other terms such as racism, anti-Islamism, anti-Muslimness, and anti-Semitism.»[57][58] Erdenir discovers that «there isn't any opinion in the range and content for the term as well as its relationship with ideas particularly racism ...»[59] and Shryock, reviewing the application of the word across nationwide boundaries, involves the exact same conclusion.[60]

Some scholars see Islamophobia and racism as partially overlapping phenomena. Diane Frost describes Islamophobia as anti-Muslim feeling and physical violence predicated on «race» or faith.[61] Islamophobia could also target those who have Muslim names, or take a glance that's associated with Muslims.[62] In accordance with Alan Johnson, Islamophobia sometimes can be simply xenophobia or racism «wrapped in religious terms.»[63] Sociologists Yasmin Hussain and Paul Bagguley reported that racism and Islamophobia are «analytically distinct,» but «empirically inter-related».[64]

The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) describes Islamophobia as «the concern with or prejudiced viewpoint towards Islam, Muslims and things pertaining to them», incorporating that whether «it takes the shape of daily forms of racism and discrimination or higher violent types, Islamophobia is a violation of human liberties and a danger to social cohesion».[43]

Proposed alternatives

The notion of Islamophobia as developed by Runnymede had been additionally criticized by teacher Fred Halliday on a few amounts. He writes that the target of hostility within the contemporary period isn't Islam and its tenets around it really is Muslims, suggesting that a more accurate term will be «Anti-Muslimism». He additionally states that strains and forms of prejudice against Islam and Muslims differ across different countries and countries, which will be maybe not recognized within the Runnymede analysis, that has been especially about Muslims in Britain.[65] Poole reacts that numerous Islamophobic discourses attack whatever they perceive become Islam's tenets, while Miles and Brown compose that Islamophobia is generally based upon negative stereotypes about Islam that are then translated into attacks on Muslims. In addition they argue that «the presence of different 'Islamophobias' cannot invalidate the concept of Islamophobia anymore compared to presence of different racisms invalidates the idea of racism.»[66][4][67]

In a 2011 paper in American Behavioral Scientist, Erik Bleich reported «there is not any widely accepted definition of Islamophobia that allows systematic comparative and causal analysis», and advances «indiscriminate negative attitudes or thoughts inclined to Islam or Muslims» as a possible way to this problem.[68]

In order to distinguish between prejudiced views of Islam and secularly motivated critique of Islam, Roland Imhoff and Julia Recker formulated the style «Islamoprejudice», that they later operationalised in an experiment. The test revealed that their meaning provided a tool for accurate differentiation.[69] Nonetheless, other researchers' experimental work shows that, even though Westerners seem to try and differentiate between criticizing (Muslim) ideas and values and respecting Muslims as persons, they nevertheless show prejudice and discrimination of Muslims—compared to non-Muslims—when these targets protect supposedly antiliberal reasons.[70]

Origins and causes

History of term

One very early use cited as the term's first use is by the painter Alphonse Étienne Dinet and Algerian intellectual Sliman ben Ibrahim within their 1918 biography of Islam's prophet Muhammad.[71][72] Composing in French, they utilized the definition of islamophobie. Robin Richardson writes that in English form of the book the word had not been translated as «Islamophobia» but instead as «feelings inimical to Islam». Dahou Ezzerhouni has cited some other uses in French since 1910, and from 1912 to 1918.[73] These very early uses of this term couldn't, in accordance with Christopher Allen, have a similar meaning like in modern use, because they described a fear of Islam by liberal Muslims and Muslim feminists, in the place of a fear or dislike/hatred of Muslims by non-Muslims.[72][74] Having said that, Fernando Bravo López contends that Dinet and ibn Sliman's utilization of the term was as a criticism of overly hostile attitudes to Islam by a Belgian orientalist, Henri Lammens, whoever project they saw as a "'pseudo-scientific crusade inside hope of bringing Islam down once and for all.'" He additionally notes that an early on definition of Islamophobia appears into the Ph.D. thesis of Alain Quellien, a French colonial bureaucrat:

For some, the Muslim may be the normal and irreconcilable enemy associated with Christian together with European; Islam may be the negation of civilization, and barbarism, bad faith and cruelty are the most useful you can expect through the Mohammedans.

Moreover, he notes that Quellien's work draws greatly in the work associated with the French colonial division's 1902–06 administrator, who published a work with 1906, which to outstanding level mirrors John Espositois the Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?.[75]

Initial recorded utilization of the term in English, based on the Oxford English Dictionary, was in 1923 in articles within the Journal of Theological Studies.[28] The term joined into typical use with all the publication associated with Runnymede Trust's report in 1997.[76] «Kofi Annan asserted at a 2004 seminar entitled „Confronting Islamophobia“ that the term Islamophobia had to be coined to „take account of increasingly extensive bigotry“.[77]

Contrasting views on Islam

The Runnymede report contrasted „open“ and „closed“ views of Islam, and stated that the after „closed“ views are equated with Islamophobia:[78]

  1. Islam is observed as a monolithic bloc, static and unresponsive to improve.
  2. It is seen as separate and „other“. It doesn't have values in common with other cultures, isn't affected by them and doesn't influence them.
  3. It is seen as inferior compared to the western. It's seen as barbaric, irrational, ancient, and sexist.
  4. It is observed as violent, aggressive, threatening, supportive of terrorism, and engaged in a clash of civilizations.
  5. It is observed as a political ideology, useful for governmental or army benefit.
  6. Criticisms made from „the West“ by Muslims are refused out of hand.
  7. Hostility towards Islam can be used to justify discriminatory methods towards Muslims and exclusion of Muslims from main-stream society.
  8. Anti-Muslim hostility sometimes appears as normal and normal.

These „closed“ views are contrasted, inside report, with „open“ views on Islam which, while founded on respect for Islam, allow legitimate disagreement, dialogue and critique.[79] Based on Benn and Jawad, The Runnymede Trust notes that anti-Muslim discourse is increasingly regarded as respectable, providing examples how hostility towards Islam and Muslims is accepted as normal, also the type of whom may earnestly challenge other predominant forms of discrimination.[80]

Hindu nationalist politician Arun Pathak organised a celebration in Varanasi to commemorate the 1992 demolition of the Babri Masjid mosque.

Identity politics

It was suggested that Islamophobia is closely pertaining to identification politics, and gives its adherents the identified good thing about constructing their identification versus a negative, essentialized image of Muslims. This happens by means of self-righteousness, project of fault and key identification markers.[81] Davina Bhandar writes that:[82]

[...] the term 'cultural' became synonymous aided by the group of the ethnic or minority (...). It views tradition as an entity that's very abstracted from techniques of everyday life and for that reason represents the illusion that there exists a spirit of the individuals. This formulation causes the homogenisation of social identification plus the ascription of particular values and proclivities onto minority cultural groups.

She views this as an ontological trap that hinders the perception of culture as one thing „materially located in the living methods of everyday, operating out of time-space rather than situated in abstract projections of just what comprises either a specific tradition or culture.“

In a few societies, Islamophobia has materialized due to the portrayal of Islam and Muslims while the national „Other“, where exclusion and discrimination happens on the basis of their faith and civilization which differs with nationwide tradition and identity. Examples include Pakistani and Algerian migrants in Britain and France respectively.[83][84] This belief, according to Malcolm Brown and Robert Miles, notably interacts with racism, although Islamophobia itself isn't racism.[84][85] Author Doug Saunders has drawn parallels between Islamophobia in the usa as well as its older discrimination and hate against Roman Catholics, saying that Catholicism ended up being seen as backwards and imperial, while Catholic immigrants had poorer education plus some were in charge of criminal activity and terrorism.[86][87][88][89][90][90][62]

Brown and Miles write that another function of Islamophobic discourse is always to amalgamate nationality (e.g. Saudi), religion (Islam), and politics (terrorism, fundamentalism) – while most other religions aren't related to terrorism, or even „ethnic or nationwide distinctiveness.“[84] They feel that „many associated with the stereotypes and misinformation that donate to the articulation of Islamophobia are rooted in a certain perception of Islam“, such as the idea that Islam promotes terrorism – especially common following the September 11, 2001 assaults.[4]

The two-way stereotyping resulting from Islamophobia has occasionally resulted in mainstreaming of earlier in the day controversial discourses, such as for example liberal attitudes towards sex equality[81][82] and homosexuals.[91] Christina Ho has warned against framing of such mainstreaming of gender equality in a colonial, paternal discourse, arguing that this may undermine minority ladies' ability to talk away about their concerns.[92]

Steven Salaita contends that, since 9/11, Arab Us citizens have developed from what Nadine Naber described as an invisible group in the usa into a highly visible community that straight or indirectly strikes america' culture wars, foreign policy, presidential elections and legislative tradition.[93]

The academics S. Sayyid and Abdoolkarim Vakil keep that Islamophobia is an answer toward emergence of a definite Muslim public identity globally, the current presence of Muslims by itself perhaps not being an indicator for the degree of Islamophobia in a society. Sayyid and Vakil keep there are societies where without any Muslims live but the majority of institutionalized kinds of Islamophobia remain in them.[32]

Hyperlinks to ideologies

Cora Alexa Døving, a senior scientist during the Norwegian Center for Studies of Holocaust and Religious Minorities, argues there are significant similarities between Islamophobic discourse and European pre-Nazi antisemitism.[81] One of the issues are imagined threats of minority growth and domination, threats to traditional institutions and traditions, skepticism of integration, threats to secularism, worries of intimate crimes, worries of misogyny, fears based on historic social inferiority, hostility to modern Western Enlightenment values, etc.

Matti Bunzl has argued there are essential differences when considering Islamophobia and antisemitism. While antisemitism had been a sensation closely linked to European nation-building processes, he sees Islamophobia as getting the concern of European civilization as the center point.[94] Døving, alternatively, keeps that, at the very least in Norway, the Islamophobic discourse has a clear national element.[81] In a reply to Bunzl, French scholar of Jewish history, Esther Benbassa, agrees with him for the reason that he attracts a definite connection between modern hostile and essentializing sentiments towards Muslims and historical antisemitism. But she contends from the use of the term Islamophobia, since, inside her viewpoint, it appeals to unwarranted attention to an underlying racist present.[95]

The pinnacle regarding the Media Responsibility Institute in Erlangen, Sabine Schiffer, and researcher Constantin Wagner, who additionally define Islamophobia as anti-Muslim racism, outline additional similarities and differences between Islamophobia and antisemitism.[96] They explain the existence of comparable notions particularly „Judaisation/Islamisation“, and metaphors like „a state within a state“ are utilized in relation to both Jews and Muslims. Furthermore, both discourses make use of, among other rhetorical instruments, „religious imperatives“ supposedly „proven“ by religious sources, and conspiracy theories.

The differences between Islamophobia and antisemitism contain the type regarding the observed threats to the „Christian West“. Muslims are regarded as „inferior“ and also as an obvious „external threat“, while on the other hand, Jews are regarded as „omnipotent“ so that as a low profile „internal threat“. However, Schiffer and Wagner additionally observe that there is certainly an evergrowing tendency to look at Muslims as a privileged team that constitute an „internal threat“ which this convergence involving the two discources makes „it more and more essential to use findings through the research of anti-Semitism to analyse Islamophobia“. Schiffer and Wagner conclude,

The accomplishment into the research of anti-Semitism of examining Jewry and anti-Semitism separately should also be utilized in other racisms, like Islamophobia. We don't need additional information about Islam, but more information about the creating of racist stereotypes in general.

The book Social Work and Minorities: European Perspectives describes Islamophobia since the brand new kind of racism in Europe,[97] arguing that „Islamophobia can be much a form of racism as anti-semitism, a term more commonly encountered in European countries as a sibling of racism, xenophobia and Intolerance.“[98]Edward Stated considers Islamophobia because it is evinced in Orientalism become a trend in a more basic antisemitic Western tradition.[99][100] Others observe that there has been a transition from anti-Asian and anti-Arab racism to anti-Muslim racism,[101] though some note a racialization of faith.[102]

In accordance with a 2012 report by an UK anti-racism group, counter-jihadist clothes in Europe and the united states have become more cohesive by forging alliances, with 190 teams now recognized as advertising an Islamophobic agenda.[103] In Islamophobia and its particular consequences on teenagers (p. 6) Ingrid Ramberg writes „Whether it will take the form of day-to-day kinds of racism and discrimination or higher violent kinds, Islamophobia is a violation of human legal rights and a threat to social cohesion.“. Professor John Esposito of Georgetown University calls Islamophobia „the brand new anti-Semitism“.[104]

Within their 2018 American Muslim Poll, the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding unearthed that when it stumbled on their Islamophobia index (see Public Opinion), they unearthed that those who scored higher regarding the index, (i.e. more islamophobic) were, “associated with 1) greater acceptance of targeting civilians, whether it's a military or individual/small team that is doling out of the violence, 2) greater acquiescence to restricting both press freedoms and institutional checks following a hypothetical terror assault, and 3) greater help the alleged “Muslim ban” therefore the surveillance of US mosques (or their outright building prohibition).”[105]

Mohamed Nimer compares Islamophobia with anti-Americanism. He argues that while both Islam and America is at the mercy of legitimate criticisms without detesting a people as a whole, bigotry against both are on the increase.[106]

Opposition to multiculturalism

According to Gabrielle Maranci, the increasing Islamophobia in western relates to a rising repudiation of multiculturalism. Maranci concludes that „Islamophobia is a 'phobia' of multiculturalism as well as the transruptive effect that Islam may have in Europe and the West through transcultural procedures.“[107]


an American protester holding an indication explaining himself as IslamophobicMain article: Islamophobic incidents


Main article: Islamophobia in the media

According to Elizabeth Poole in Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies, the news are criticized for perpetrating Islamophobia. She cites an incident study examining an example of articles in the British press from between 1994 and 2004, which concluded that Muslim viewpoints had been underrepresented which problems involving Muslims often depicted them in a poor light. Such portrayals, according to Poole, include the depiction of Islam and Muslims as a threat to Western protection and values.[108] Benn and Jawad compose that hostility towards Islam and Muslims are „closely connected to media portrayals of Islam as barbaric, irrational, ancient and sexist.“[80] Egorova and Tudor cite European scientists in suggesting that expressions used in the news such as for example „Islamic terrorism“, „Islamic bombs“ and „violent Islam“ have led to an adverse perception of Islam.[5] John E. Richardson's 2004 book (Mis)representing Islam: the racism and rhetoric of Uk broadsheet newspapers, criticized the British news for propagating negative stereotypes of Muslims and fueling anti-Muslim prejudice.[109] An additional study conducted by John E. Richardson, he discovered that 85percent of traditional magazine articles managed Muslims as a homogeneous mass have been imagined as a threat to British society.[110]

Last year, Mehdi Hasan inside brand new Statesman criticized Western media for over-reporting a couple of Islamist terrorist incidents but under-reporting the much larger wide range of in the pipeline non-Islamist terrorist attacks carried out by „non-Irish white people“.[111] A 2012 research shows that Muslims across various europe, such as France, Germany while the United Kingdom, feel the greatest level of Islamophobia into the news.[47] Media personalities have now been accused of Islamophobia. The obituary inside Guardian the Italian journalist Oriana Fallaci described the lady as „notorious for her Islamaphobia“ [sic].[112] The Institute for personal Policy and Understanding published a study in 2018 in which they claimed, “with regards to printing news coverage, Muslim-perceived perpetrators received twice the absolute level of media coverage as their non-Muslim counterparts in cases of violent finished acts. For “foiled” plots, they received seven and half times the news coverage as their counterparts.”[113]

The word „Islamophobia industry“ happens to be created by Nathan Lean and John Esposito in the 2012 book The Islamophobia Industry: How the Right Manufactures concern with Muslims. Unlike the partnership of a buyer and a seller, it really is a relationship of shared benefit, where ideologies and political proclivities converge to advance similar agenda.[114] The „Islamophobia industry“ has because been discussed by other scholars including Joseph Kaminski,[115] Hatem Bazian,[116] Arlene Stein, Zakia Salime, Reza Aslan,[117] Erdoan A. Shipoli, and Deepa Kumar, the latter drawing an evaluation between your „Islamophobia industry“ and Cold War era McCarthyism.[118]

Some news outlets are working explicitly against Islamophobia. In 2008 Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (»FAIR") published a study «Smearcasting, exactly how Islamophobes Spread Bigotry, Fear and Misinformation.» The report cites several instances where mainstream or near mainstream journalists, authors and academics have made analyses that essentialize negative traits as an inherent element of Muslims' moral makeup.[119] FAIR also established the "Forum Against Islamophobia and Racism", made to monitor coverage within the news and establish discussion with news organizations. Following the attacks of 11 September 2001, the Islamic community of Britain's «Islam Awareness Week» therefore the «Best of Uk Islam Festival» were introduced to boost community relations and raise awareness about Islam.[120] In 2012 the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation claimed that they can introduce a TV channel to counter Islamophobia.[121]

You can find growing cases of Islamophobia in Hindi cinema, or Bollywood, in movies such as for example Aamir (2008), nyc (2009) and i'm Khan (2010), which corresponds to an evergrowing anti-minorities sentiment that observed the resurgence regarding the Hindu right.[122][123]

An English Defence League demonstration. The placard checks out turn off the mosque command and control centre.


See additionally: List of organizations designated by the Southern Poverty Law Center as hate groups § Anti-Muslim

A report from University of California Berkeley as well as the Council on American–Islamic Relations estimated that $206 million ended up being funded to 33 groups whoever main function had been «to promote prejudice against, or hatred of, Islam and Muslims» in america between 2008 and 2013, with a complete of 74 teams contributing to Islamophobia in the usa throughout that period.[124]

Stop Islamization of America (SIOA) and also the Freedom Defense Initiative are designated as hate teams by the Anti-Defamation League[125] while the Southern Poverty Law Center.[126][127][128] In August 2012 SIOA produced news promotion by sponsoring billboards in nyc Subway channels claiming there have been 19,250 terrorist attacks by Muslims since 9/11 and stating «it's not Islamophobia, it's Islamorealism.»[129] It later on ran adverts reading «In any war between your civilized guy while the savage, support the civilized guy. Help Israel. Defeat Jihad.» A few groups condemned the advertisements as «hate speech» about all Muslims[130][131][132] while some defended the ad as a narrow criticism of violent Jihadism.[133] In very early January 2013 the Freedom Defense Initiative set up ads next to 228 clocks in 39 New York subway channels showing the 2001 attacks in the World Trade Center with a quote related to the 151st verse of chapter 3 for the Quran: «Soon shall we cast terror into the hearts of this unbelievers.»[134][135] This new York City Transit Authority, which stated it could must carry the ads on First Amendment grounds, insisted that 25percent of this ad have a Transit Authority disclaimer.[136][137] These ads additionally had been criticized.[138][139]

The English Defence League (EDL), an organization in the uk, was called anti-Muslim. It was formed last year to oppose just what it considers to be a spread of Islamism, Sharia legislation and Islamic extremism inside UK.[140] The EDL's former frontrunner, Tommy Robinson, left the group in 2013 saying it had become too extreme and that road protests were inadequate.[141]

Moreover, the 7 July 2005 London bombings therefore the resulting efforts of this British civil and law enforcement authorities to aid look for Uk Muslims' help in pinpointing possible threats generate prevention is seen by Michael Lavalette as institutionalized Islamophobia. Lavalette alleges that there's a continuity between the former two Uk governments over avoidance that aims to avoid young Muslim individuals from being misled, misdirected and recruited by extremists whom exploit grievances because of their very own «jihadist» endeavors. Asking and centering on Muslim communities and young muslims to stop future instances, by the authorities, is alone Islamophobia therefore since involvement of Muslim communities will highlight and endorse their compassion for Britain and negate the identified threats from within their communities.[142]

Public viewpoint

Anti-Islam rally in Poland in 2015

The degree of negative attitudes towards Muslims differs across different parts of European countries.

Unfavorable views of Muslims, 2016[6]CountryPercentHungary72%Italy69percentPoland66percentGreece65percentSpain50percentNetherlands35per centSweden35per centFrance29per centGermany29%United Kingdom28percent

in the United States specifically, despite the increase in islamophobia, the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding (ISPU) has additionally found that many People in the us, “remain steadfast in their dedication to the united states’s fundamental freedoms”, among which being the freedom of faith. 86% of Americans polled by ISPU stated they wished to “live in a country in which no body is targeted with regards to their religious identity”, 83per cent for the general public told ISPU they help “protecting the civil legal rights of American Muslims”, and in general, 66per cent of Us americans, “believe negative political rhetoric toward Muslims is harmful to U.S.”. Average People in the us additionally appear to be alert to the fact that islamophobia produces discriminatory effects for Muslims in the us, with 65per cent regarding the average man or woman agreeing.[105]

The chart below displays gathered information through the ISPU 2018 United states Muslim Poll [105] which surveyed six different faith populations in the United States. The statements showcased within chart had been expected to participants whom then responded on a scale from strongly agree to highly disagree. The total portion of these whom replied consent and strongly agree are depicted the following (Note: the expression «W. Evang.» means White Evangelical, that has been the precise demographic surveyed):

Question 1: «i wish to are now living in a country in which no one is targeted with regards to their spiritual identity.»

Concern 2: «The negative things politicians state regarding Muslims is bad for our country.»

Question 3: «Most Muslims staying in the United States are you can forget accountable for physical violence performed by a Muslim than someone else.»

Matter 4: «Most Muslims living in america are victims of discrimination because of their faith.»

102030405060708090100MuslimJewishCatholicProtestantW. Evang.Non-Affiliated
  • concern 1 (per cent Net agree)
  • concern 2 (percent web consent)
  • concern 3 (per cent Net Agree)
  • Question 4 (per cent Net agree)

The table below represents the Islamophobia Index, also from the 2018 ISPU poll.[105] This data shows an index of islamophobia among faith populations in the United States.

ISPU Islamophobia Index[105]Most Muslims residing in the Unites States...(percent Net consent shown)MuslimJewishCatholicProtestantWhite EvangelicalNon-AffiliatedGeneral PublicAre more prone to violence18%15per cent12%13%23per cent8%13percentDiscriminate against women12%23%29%30%36%18%26percentAre hostile to the United States12%13percent9%14%23%8percent12percentAre less civilized than other people8%6percent4per cent6percent10percent1per cent6%Are partially in charge of functions of physical violence completed by other Muslims10%16percent11%12%14per cent8%12per centIndex (0 min- 100 max)17222231401424

Internalized Islamophobia

ISPU also highlighted a specific trend in relation to anti-Muslim sentiment in the U.S.- internalized islamophobia among Muslim populations themselves. Whenever asked when they felt many people want them to be ashamed of their faith identification, 30per cent of muslims agreed (greater portion than just about any faith group). Whenever expected should they thought that their faith community was more prone to negative behavior than other faith communities, 30% of Muslims agreed, once again, an increased percentage than other faith groups.[105]


Islamophobia is becoming an interest of increasing sociological and governmental importance.[84] According to Benn and Jawad, Islamophobia has increased since Ayatollah Khomeini's 1989 fatwa inciting Muslims to attempt to murder Salman Rushdie, the writer of this Satanic Verses, and since the 11 September attacks (in 2001).[143]Anthropologist Steven Vertovec writes that the purported development in Islamophobia might associated with increased Muslim presence in society and successes.[144][145][146] He implies a circular model, where increased hostility towards Islam and Muslims results in government countermeasures including institutional tips and modifications to legislation, which itself may fuel further Islamophobia due to increased accommodation for Muslims in public areas life. Vertovec concludes: «As the general public sphere changes to provide an even more prominent destination for Muslims, Islamophobic tendencies may amplify.»[144][145][146]

An anti-Islamic protest in Poland

Patel, Humphries, and Naik (1998) declare that «Islamophobia has long been present in Western nations and countries. In the last 2 decades, it's become accentuated, explicit and extreme.»[147][148][149] But Vertovec (2002) states that some have actually observed that Islamophobia hasn't fundamentally escalated before decades, but that there is increased general public scrutiny from it.[144][145][146] In accordance with Abduljalil Sajid, one of many members of Runnymede Trust's Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, «Islamophobias» have existed in varying strains throughout history, with every version possessing a unique distinct features in addition to similarities or adaptations from others.[150]

In 2005 Ziauddin Sardar, an Islamic scholar, published within the brand new Statesman that Islamophobia is a widespread European trend.[151] He noted that every country has anti-Muslim political numbers, citing Jean-Marie Le Pen in France; Pim Fortuyn within the Netherlands; and Philippe van der Sande of Vlaams Blok, a Flemish nationalist party in Belgium. Sardar argued that Europe is «post-colonial, but ambivalent.» Minorities are thought to be appropriate as an underclass of menial workers, however, if they wish to be upwardly mobile anti-Muslim prejudice rises to your area. Wolfram Richter, teacher of economics at Dortmund University of tech, told Sardar: «i'm afraid we now have maybe not learned from our history. My main fear usually that which we did to Jews we may now do to Muslims. Another holocaust will be against Muslims.»[151] Comparable fears, since noted by Kenan Malik in his book From Fatwa to Jihad, had been previously expressed in the UK by Muslim philosopher Shabbir Akhtar in 1989, and Massoud Shadjareh, chair of this Islamic Human Rights Commission in 2000. In 2006 Salma Yaqoob, a Respect Party Councillor, advertised that Muslims in Britain were «subject to assaults reminiscent of the gathering storm of anti-Semitism in the first years regarding the final century.».[152] Malik, a senior visiting other into the Department of Political, Global and Policy Studies within University of Surrey, has described these claims of a brewing holocaust as «hysterical to the stage of delusion»; whereas Jews in Hitler's Germany got the state designation of Untermenschen, and had been at the mercy of escalating legislation which diminished and ultimately eliminated their liberties as residents, Malik noted that where «Muslims are designated in Britain, it's for privileged treatment» for instance the 2005 legislation banning «incitement to religious hatred», the unique capital Muslim businesses and figures receive from neighborhood and nationwide government, the special provisions made by workplaces, school and leisure centers for Muslims, and also recommendations by the Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams and former Lord Chief Justice, Lord Phillips, that sharia legislation is introduced into Britain.[153] Truth be told, had written Malik, that such well-respected public numbers as Akhtar, Shadjareh and Yaqoob need «a history training towards genuine Holocaust reveals how warped the Muslim grievance tradition became.»[153]

A protester opposing the Park51 task, holds an anti-sharia sign.

In 2006 ABC Information reported that «public views of Islam are one casualty for the post-Sept. 11, 2001 conflict: Nearly six in 10 People in the us think the religion is vulnerable to violent extremism, nearly half respect it unfavorably, and a remarkable one in four admits to prejudicial emotions against Muslims and Arabs alike.» Additionally they report that 27 % of Us citizens acknowledge emotions of prejudice against Muslims.[154] Gallup polls in 2006 found that 40 per cent of People in america acknowledge to prejudice against Muslims, and 39 percent think Muslims should carry special recognition.[155] These trends have actually only worsened with the use of Islamophobia as a campaign strategy throughout the 2008 United states presidential election (with several Republican politicians and pundits, including Donald Trump, asserting that Democratic prospect Barack Obama is secretly a Muslim), throughout the 2010 mid-term elections (when a proposed Islamic community center ended up being dubbed the «Ground Zero Mosque»[156]), therefore the 2016 presidential election, when Republican nominee Donald Trump proposed banning the entry into the country of most Muslims. Associate Professor Deepa Kumar writes that «Islamophobia is about politics in place of faith per se»[157] which modern-day demonization of Arabs and Muslims by US politicians as well as others is racist and Islamophobic, and used in support of what she describes as an unjust war. In regards to the general public impact with this rhetoric, she claims that «One of effects associated with relentless assaults on Islam and Muslims by politicians and media is that Islamophobic sentiment is increasing.» She additionally chides some «people in the left» for making use of the same «Islamophobic logic once the Bush regime».[158] Within regards, Kumar verifies the assertions of Stephen Sheehi, who «conceptualises Islamophobia as an ideological formation in the context associated with United states kingdom. Doing so „allows united states to get rid of it from fingers of 'culture' or through the misconception of one creator or progenitor, whether it's a person, organization or community.“ An ideological formation, in this telling, is a constellation of companies that produce, proliferate, reap the benefits of, and traffic in Islamophobic discourses.»[159]

The author and scholar on faith Reza Aslan has stated that «Islamophobia became so mainstream in this country that Us americans have been trained to expect violence against Muslims – maybe not excuse it, but expect it»[160]

A January 2010 British personal Attitudes Survey unearthed that the Uk general public «is more prone to hold negative views of Muslims than of some other religious team,»[161] with «just one in four» experiencing «positively about Islam,» and a «majority of nation would be worried if a mosque was integrated their area, while just 15 % expressed comparable qualms in regards to the opening of a church.»[162]

A 2016 report by CAIR and University of Ca, Berkeley's Center for Race and Gender said that teams advertising islamophobia in the usa had access to 206 million USD between 2008 and 2013. Mcdougal associated with the report stated that «The hate that these teams are funding and inciting is having real effects like attacks on mosques all over the country and new legislation discriminating against Muslims in America.»[163]

Islamophobia has effects. In the us, spiritual discrimination against Muslims has become a substantial problems of concern. In 2018, The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding found that from the groups studied, Muslims would be the almost certainly faith community to have spiritual discrimination, the info having been by doing this since 2015. Despite 61per cent of Muslims reporting experiencing religious discrimination at some level and 62% reporting that many People in america held negative stereotypes about their community, 23percent reported that they faith made them feel “out of devote the world”.[105] You can find intersections with racial identity and gender identity, with 73% of Arabs surveyed being almost certainly going to experience religious discrimination, and Muslim ladies (75per cent) and youth (75per cent) being the most prone to report experiencing racial discrimination. The study also discovered that, although, “most Muslims (86per cent) express pride inside their faith identity, they have been the absolute most likely group studied to agree that others want them to feel pity for that identity (30% of Muslims vs. 12% of Jews, 16percent of non-affiliated, and 4–6% of Christian teams).”[105]

Anti-Islamic hate crimes data inside United States

Data on types of hate crimes have now been gathered by the U.S. FBI since 1992, to handle the dictates of this 1990 Hate Crime Statistics Act. Hate crime offenses include crimes against people (such as for example assaults) and against home (like arson), as they are categorized by different race-based, religion-based, along with other motivations.

A mannequin symbolizing a Muslim in a keffiyeh, strapped to a «Made in USA» bomb display at a protest of Park51 in nyc.A protest in Cincinnati, OhioProtests against Executive Order 13769 in Tehran, Iran, 10 February 2017

The data show that recorded anti-Islamic hate crimes in the usa jumped considerably in 2001. Anti-Islamic hate crimes then subsided, but proceeded at a significantly higher speed than in pre-2001 years. The intensify is in contrast to decreases altogether hate crimes and also to the decrease in general criminal activity into the U.S. because the 1990s.

Especially, the FBI's yearly hate crimes data reports from 1996 to 2013 document average amounts of anti-Islamic offenses at 31 annually before 2001, then a jump to 546 in 2001 (the entire year of 9-11 attacks), and averaging 159 per since. Among those offenses are anti-Islamic arson incidents which may have the same pattern: arson incidents averaged .4 each year pre-2001, jumped to 18 in 2001, and averaged 1.5 yearly since.[164]

Year-by-year anti-Islamic hate crimes, all hate crimes, and arson subtotals are as follows:

Anti-Islamic hate crimesAll hate crimesYearArson offensesTotal offensesArson offensesTotal offenses19960337510,7061997131609,8611998022509,2351999134489,3012000033529,4302001185469011,45120020170388,83220032155348,71520042193449,03520050146398,38020060191419,08020070133409,00620085123539,16820091128417,78920101186427,69920112175427,25420124149386,71820131165366,933Total382,613863158,593Average2.1145.247.98810.71996–2000 avg.4030.657.09,7072001185469011,4512002–2013 avg1.50159.540.78,217

In comparison, the overall variety of arson and total offenses declined from pre-2001 to post-2001.

Anti-Islamic hate crimes within the European countries

There have also been reports of hate crimes targeting Muslims across European countries. These incidents have actually increased after terrorist assaults by extremist groups like ISIL.[165]Far-right and right-wing populist political events and companies are also accused of fueling fear and hatred towards Muslims.[166][167][168][169] Hate crimes such as for example arson and assault have been attempted or have occurred in Norway,[170] Poland,[171][172] Sweden,[173] France,[174] Spain,[175] and Denmark.[176] Politicians have made anti-Muslim opinions whenever discussing European migrant crisis.[177][178][179]

Reports by governmental organizations

See also: Hijabophobiain accordance with a study carried out by the European Commission in 2015 13% of this respondents would be entirely uncomfortable about working together with a Muslim individual ( orange), in contrast to 17per cent with a transgender or transsexual person ( green) and 20per cent with a Roma individual ( violet).[180]

The largest task monitoring Islamophobia was undertaken after 9/11 by the EU watchdog, European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC). Their May 2002 report «Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001», written by Chris Allen and Jorgen S. Nielsen for the University of Birmingham, had been predicated on 75 reports – 15 from each EU member country.[181][182] The report highlighted the regularity with which ordinary Muslims became goals for abusive and quite often violent retaliatory attacks after 9/11. Despite localized differences within each user country, the recurrence of assaults on recognizable and noticeable faculties of Islam and Muslims was the report's most significant choosing. Incidents contains spoken abuse, blaming all Muslims for terrorism, forcibly removing women's hijabs, spitting on Muslims, calling kids "Osama", and random assaults. A number of Muslims had been hospitalized and in one example paralyzed.[182] The report also talked about the portrayal of Muslims within the media. Inherent negativity, stereotypical pictures, fantastical representations, and exaggerated caricatures had been all identified. The report concluded that «a greater receptivity towards anti-Muslim along with other xenophobic tips and sentiments has, and may even well carry on, to become more tolerated.»[182]

The EUMC has since released some magazines regarding Islamophobia, including The combat Antisemitism and Islamophobia: Bringing Communities together (European Round Tables conferences) (2003) and Muslims into the eu: Discrimination and Islamophobia (2006).[183]

Professor ever sold of Religion, Anne Sophie Roald, states that Islamophobia was thought to be a kind of intolerance alongside xenophobia and antisemitism at «Stockholm International Forum on Combating Intolerance»,[184] held in January 2001.[185] The meeting, attended by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson, the corporation for protection and Co-operation in Europe Secretary General Ján Kubis and representatives of the eu and Council of European countries, adopted a declaration to fight «genocide, ethnic cleansing, racism, antisemitism, Islamophobia and xenophobia, also to fight all forms of racial discrimination and intolerance regarding it.»[186]

The organization of Islamic Cooperation, in its fifth report to Islamophobia Observatory of 2012, discovered an «institutionalization and legitimization of phenomenon of Islamophobia» within the western on the past 5 years.[187]

In 2014 Integrationsverket (the Swedish National Integration Board) defined Islamophobia as «racism and discrimination expressed towards Muslims.»[188]

In 2016, the European Islamophobia Report (EIR) presented the «European Islamophobia Report 2015»[189][190] at European Parliament which analyzes the «trends in the spread of Islamophobia» in 25 European states in 2015.[191] The EIR defines Islamophobia as anti-Muslim racism. Without every critique of Muslims or Islam is fundamentally Islamophobic, anti-Muslim sentiments expressed through dominant team scapegoating and excluding Muslims in the interests of energy is.[192]

Research on Islamophobia and its own correlates

based on data by the Pew Analysis Center elaborated by VoxEurop, in European Union countries the negative attitude towards Muslims is inversely proportional to real presence[193]

Various research reports have been conducted to analyze Islamophobia and its correlates among bulk populations and among Muslim minorities themselves. In the first place, an experimental research revealed that anti-Muslim attitudes may be more powerful than more general xenophobic attitudes.[194] Moreover, studies indicate that anti-Muslim prejudice among majority populations is mainly explained by the perception of Muslims as a cultural threat, as opposed to as a threat towards the respective country's economy.[195][196][197]

Studies centering on the experience of Islamophobia among Muslims have shown that the connection with spiritual discrimination is associated with lower national recognition and higher religious recognition.[198][199] This basically means, spiritual discrimination appears to lead Muslims to improve their recognition using their religion also to decrease their recognition along with their nation of residence. Some studies further suggest that societal Islamophobia negatively influences Muslim minorities' wellness.[47][200] One of the studies revealed that the perception of an Islamophobic culture is connected with more mental problems, such as despair and nervousness, no matter whether the respective person had personally experienced religious discrimination.[47] While the authors associated with study recommend, anti-discrimination legislation may therefore be inadequate to completely protect Muslim minorities from an environment that will be aggressive towards their spiritual team.

Farid Hafez and Enes Bayrakli publish an annual European Islamophobia Report since 2015.[201] The European Islamophobie Report aims allow policymakers plus the public to discuss the issue of Islamophobia with the aid of qualitative information. It's the very first are accountable to cover many Eastern europe like Serbia, Croatia, Hungary, Lithuania, and Latvia. Farid Hafez is also editor of German-English Islamophobia Studies Yearbook.[202]

Geographic trends

An increase of Islamophobia in Russia follows the growing influence associated with the strongly conservative sect of Wahhabism, based on Nikolai Sintsov associated with the nationwide Anti-Terrorist Committee.[203]Various translations associated with the Qur'an were prohibited by the Russian government for promoting extremism and Muslim supremacy.[204][205] Anti-Muslim rhetoric is on the rise in Georgia.[206] In Greece, Islamophobia accompanies anti-immigrant sentiment, as immigrants are now actually 15percent of this country's population and 90percent of the EU's unlawful entries are through Greece.[207] In France Islamophobia is tied, partly, to the country's long-standing tradition of secularism.[208] In Burma the 969 motion was accused of events like the 2012 Rakhine State riots.

Jocelyne Cesari, inside her research of discrimination against Muslims in European countries,[209] finds that anti-Islamic sentiment might hard to split up from other drivers of discrimination. Because Muslims are primarily from immigrant backgrounds and largest group of immigrants in a lot of eu nations, xenophobia overlaps with Islamophobia, and someone could have one, another, or both. Therefore, including, many people that have an adverse perception of and attitude toward Muslims might show this toward non-Muslim immigrants, either in general or specific groups (such as for example, like, Eastern Europeans, sub-Saharan Africans, or Roma), whereas others would not. Nigel Farage, for example, is anti-EU as well as in favor of crackdowns on immigration from Eastern European countries, it is favourable to immigration from Islamic Commonwealth nations such as for example Nigeria and Pakistan.[210] In america, in which immigrants from Latin America and Asia take over and Muslims are a comparatively small group, xenophobia and Islamophobia can be easier separable. Classism is another overlapping factor in some countries. Muslims have low income and poorer training in France, Spain, Germany, therefore the Netherlands while Muslims in the usa have actually higher income and education compared to the basic populace. Into the UK, Islam is observed as a threat to secularism in reaction towards telephone calls by some Muslims for blasphemy laws. Into the Netherlands, Islam is seen as a socially conservative force that threatens gender equality therefore the acceptance of homosexuality.

The European system Against Racism (ENAR) states that Islamophobic crimes take the increase in France, England and Wales. In Sweden crimes with an Islamophobic motive increased by 69% from 2009 to 2013.[211]

A written report from Australia has unearthed that the amount of Islamophobia among Buddhists and Hindus are somewhat greater than among supporters of other religions.[212]

Critique of term and use

Although by the initial decade regarding the 21st century the word «Islamophobia» had become widely recognized and utilized,[213] its use, its construction additionally the concept itself have already been criticized. Roland Imhoff and Julia Recker, in an article that sets forward the expression «Islamoprejudice» as a better alternative, compose that "… couple of principles happen debated as heatedly throughout the last 10 years since the term Islamophobia."[69]

An anti-Islam protest into the United States

Academic debate

Jocelyne Cesari reported widespread challenges in usage and meaning associated with the term in 2006.[74][214] According to The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics, «Much debate has surrounded the usage of the word, questioning its adequacy as a proper and meaningful descriptor. But since Islamophobia has broadly entered the social and political lexicon, arguments about the appropriateness of the term now seem outdated»[215] at exactly the same time, based on a 2014 version of A Dictionary of Sociology by Oxford University Press, «the exact meaning of Islamophobia continues to be debated amongst academics and policymakers alike.» The expression has proven problematic and is seen by some as an obstacle to constructive critique of Islam. Its detractors fear it is applied to any critique of Islamic practices and opinions, suggesting terms including «anti-Muslim» instead.[216]

The classification of «closed» and «open» views set out in Runnymede report is criticized as an oversimplification of a complex problem by scholars like Chris Allen, Fred Halliday, and Kenan Malik.[217] Paul Jackson, in a critical research regarding the anti-Islamic English Defence League, contends your criteria put forward by the Runnymede report for Islamophobia «can permit any critique of Muslim societies to be dismissed...». He argues that both jihadi Islamists and far right activists utilize the term «to deflect attention away from more nuanced discussions in the makeup of Muslim communities», feeding «a language of polarised polemics». Similarly, it can be utilized «to shut down discussion on genuine aspects of criticism» regarding jihadi ideologies, which in turn has resulted in all accusations of Islamophobia to be dismissed as «spurious» undoubtedly right activists. Consequently, the definition of is «losing much [of its] analytical value».[218]

Professor Eli Göndör penned your term Islamophobia should really be replaced with «Muslimophobia».[219] As Islamophobia is «a getting rejected of a population due to Muslimness», other researches recommend «Muslimism».[220]

Professor Mohammad H. Tamdgidi of the University of Massachusetts, Boston, has generally endorsed the meaning of Islamophobia as defined by the Runnymede Trust's Islamophobia: challenging for people All. But he notes your report's directory of «open» views of Islam it self gift suggestions «an inadvertent definitional framework for Islamophilia»: that's, it «falls inside trap of regarding Islam monolithically, subsequently to be characterized by one or any other trait, and will not adequately express the complex heterogeneity of a historic event whoever contradictory interpretations, traditions, and sociopolitical styles were shaped and it has subsequently been shaped, as in the way it is of any world tradition, by other world-historical forces.»[221]

Philosopher Michael Walzer states that anxiety about spiritual militancy, such as «of Hindutva zealots in Asia, of messianic Zionists in Israel, and of rampaging Buddhist monks in Myanmar», is not necessarily an irrational phobia, and compares anxiety about Islamic extremism with the fear Muslims and Jews could feel towards Christians during the crusades.[222] However, he also writes that:

Islamophobia is a kind of religious intolerance, even religious hatred, therefore could be incorrect for any leftists to support bigots in Europe and usa whom intentionally misunderstand and misrepresent contemporary Muslims. They make no distinction involving the historic religion additionally the zealots of this moment; they respect every Muslim immigrant in a Western country as a potential terrorist; and so they fail to acknowledge the towering achievements of Muslim philosophers, poets, and designers over numerous hundreds of years.[222]


In the wake of Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy, several 12 article writers, including novelist Salman Rushdie, signed a manifesto entitled Together facing the brand new totalitarianism in French once a week satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo, warning from the utilization of the term Islamophobia to avoid criticism of «Islamic totalitarianism».[223][224] composing in the New Humanist, philosopher Piers Benn implies that people who fear the rise of Islamophobia foster a host «not intellectually or morally healthy», to the stage that what he calls «Islamophobia-phobia» can undermine «critical scrutiny of Islam as somehow impolite, or ignorant associated with religion's true nature.»[225]

Alan Posener and Alan Johnson have written that, although the idea of Islamophobia might be misused, those who declare that hatred of Muslims is justified as opposition to Islamism really undermine the struggle against Islamism.[63]Roger Kimball contends your term «Islamophobia» is inherently a prohibition or anxiety about criticizing of Islamic extremism.[226] According to Pascal Bruckner, the word was designed by Iranian fundamentalists in belated 1970s analogous to "xenophobia" to denounce as racism just what he seems is genuine criticism of Islam.[227] The author Sam Harris, while denouncing bigotry, racism, and prejudice against Muslims or Arabs, rejects the term Islamophobia[228] as an invented mental disorder, and states criticizing those Islamic opinions and techniques he believes pose a threat to civil culture isn't a type of bigotry or racism.[229] Similarly, Pascal Bruckner calls the definition of «a clever invention as it amounts to making Islam an interest this 1 cannot touch without having to be accused of racism.»[230]

French Prime Minister Manuel Valls stated in January 2015 following Charlie Hebdo shooting «It is essential to produce clear to people who Islam has nothing in connection with ISIS. There clearly was a prejudice in culture about it, but alternatively, I refuse to use this term 'Islamophobia,' because people who make use of this word are attempting to invalidate any criticism anyway of Islamist ideology. The cost of 'Islamophobia' can be used to silence people».[231]

Composing in 2008 Ed Husain, a former member of Hizb ut-Tahrir and co-founder of Quilliam,[232] stated that under some pressure from Islamist extremists, "'Islamophobia' is becoming accepted as an event on a par with racism", claiming that «Outside some flashpoints where in actuality the BNP is at work, many Muslims would be hard-pressed to spot Islamophobia within their lives».[233]

Salman Rushdie criticized the coinage regarding the term 'Islamophobia' stating that it «was an addition on language of Humpty Dumpty Newspeak. It took the language of analysis, explanation and dispute, and endured it on its head».[234]

Christopher Hitchens stated that the «stupid term – Islamophobia – has been put in circulation to try and declare that a foul prejudice lurks behind any misgivings about Islam's infallible 'message.'»[235]

In his paper 'a way of measuring Islamophobia' Salman Sayyid (2014) contends that these criticisms are a form of etymological fundamentalism and echo earlier reviews on racism and anti-Semitism. Racism and anti-Semitism were also accused of blocking free message, of being conceptually poor and too nebulous for practical purposes.[236]

The Associated Press Stylebook

In December 2012, media sources stated that the terms «homophobia» and «Islamophobia» would no further be contained in the AP Stylebook, and Deputy Standards Editor Dave Minthorn expressed concern in regards to the use of the terms, describing them as «just from the mark» and stating that they seem «inaccurate». Minthorn stated that AP decided that the terms really should not be utilized in articles with political or social contexts because they imply an awareness of mental state of another person. The terms no further seems on online stylebook, and Minthorn believes reporters should use more accurate expressions to avoid «ascribing a mental impairment to someone».[237][238]

Countering Islamophobia


On 26 September 2018, the European Parliament in Brussels established the «Counter-Islamophobia Toolkit» (CIK), utilizing the goal of combatting the growing Islamophobia throughout the EU and also to be distributed to national governments as well as other policy makers, civil society additionally the news. Based on the most comprehensive research in Europe, it examines patterns of Islamophobia and effective methods against it in eight member states. It lists ten principal narratives and ten effective counter-narratives.[239][240][241]

Among the writers of this CIK, Amina Easat-Daas, claims that Muslim women are disproportionately afflicted with Islamophobia, centered on both «threat to the west» and «victims of...Islamic sexism» narratives. The approach drawn in the CIK is a four-step one: defining the misinformed narratives centered on problematic logic; documenting them; deconstructing these ideas to expose the flaws; and finally, reconstruction of mainstream a few ideas about Islam and Muslims, one closer to reality. The dominant a few ideas circulating in popular culture should reflect the diverse every day experiences of Muslims and their faith.[242]

See also

  • Anti-Christian sentiment
    • Anti-Catholicism
    • Anti-Mormonism
    • Anti-Orthodoxy
    • Anti-Protestantism
  • Discrimination against atheists
  • Muslims Condemn
  • Persecution of Bahá'ís
  • Persecution of Jews
    • Anti-Judaism
    • Anti-Zionism
    • Antisemitism in Europe
    • Antisemitism inside Arab world
    • Islam and antisemitism
    • New antisemitism
    • Religious antisemitism
  • Persecution of Muslims
    • Islamophobia in Australia
    • Islamophobia in Canada
    • Islamophobia in Germany
    • Islamophobia in Norway
    • Islamophobia in Sweden
    • Islamophobia in United Kingdom
    • Islamophobia within the United States
    • Islamophobia inside media
    • Islamophobia Watch
    • Islamophobic incidents
  • Religious intolerance
  • Religious persecution
  • Religious violence
  • Religious war



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  • Poole, E. (2003). «Islamophobia». In Cashmore, Ellis (ed.). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. Routledge. pp. 215–19. ISBN 978-0-415-44714-0.
  • Benn, Tansin; Jawad, H. A. (2003). Muslim Women in great britain and Beyond: Experiences and pictures. Brill Publishers. p. 178. ISBN 978-90-04-12581-0.
  • Egorova, Y.; Parfitt, T. (2003). Jews, Muslims, and media: Mediating the 'Other'. London: Routledge Curzon. ISBN 978-0-415-31839-6.
  • Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck (2002). Muslims inside West: From Sojourners to people. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-19-514805-3.
  • Williams, Charlotte; Soydan, Haluk; Johnson, Mark (1998). Social Perform and Minorities: European Perspectives. London, New York: Routledge. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-415-16962-2.
  • Miles, Robert; Brown, Malcolm (2003). Racism. London, Nyc: Psychology Press. p. 197. ISBN 9780415296779.

Further reading

  • Allen, Chris (2011). Islamophobia. Ashgate Publishing Company.
  • Abbas, Tahir (2005). Muslim Britain: Communities Under Great Pressure. Zed. ISBN 978-1-84277-449-6.
  • van Driel, B. (2004). Confronting Islamophobia In Academic Practice. Trentham Books. ISBN 978-1-85856-340-4.
  • "Fear, Inc.: The Roots of Islamophobia system in the us," Wajahat Ali, Eli Clifton, Matthew Duss, Lee Fang, Scott Keyes, and Faiz Shakir, accessed 24 February 2015.
  • "Fear, Inc. 2.0: The Islamophobia system's Efforts to Manufacture Hate in the usa," Matthew Duss, Yasmine Taeb, Ken Gude, and Ken Sofer, accessed 24 February 2015.
  • Gottschalk, P.; Greenberg, G. (2007). Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield writers. ISBN 978-0-7425-5286-9.
  • Greaves, R. (2004). Islam and western Post 9/11. Ashgate publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7546-5005-8.
  • Kaplan, Jeffrey (2006). "Islamophobia in America?: September 11 and Islamophobic Hate Crime", Terrorism and Political Violence (Routledge), 18:1, 1–33.
  • Kincheloe, Joe L. and Shirley R. Steinberg (2004). The Miseducation of West: the way the Schools and Media Distort Our knowledge of Islam. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Press. (Arabic Edition, 2005).
  • Kincheloe, Joe L. and Shirley R. Steinberg (2010). Training Against Islamophobia. New York: Peter Lang.
  • Konrad, Felix (2011). From the «Turkish Menace» to Exoticism and Orientalism: Islam as Antithesis of Europe (1453–1914)?, European History on the web, Mainz: Institute of European History. Retrieved: 22 June 2011.
  • Kundnani, Arun. (2014) The Muslims Are Coming! Islamaphobia, Extremism, as well as the Domestic War on Terror (Verso; 2014) 327 pages
  • Pynting, Scott; Mason, Victoria (2007). "The Resistible increase of Islamophobia: Anti-Muslim Racism in the united kingdom and Australia before 11 September 2001". Journal of Sociology" (PDF). The Australian Sociological Association. 43 (1): 61–86. doi:10.1177/1440783307073935.
  • Quraishi, M. (2005). Muslims and Crime: A Comparative Research. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-4233-6.
  • Ramadan, T. (2004). Western Muslims and Future of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517111-2.
  • Richardson, John E. (2004). (Mis)representing Islam: the racism and rhetoric of British broadsheet papers. John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 978-90-272-2699-0.
  • Sheehi, Stephen (2011). Islamophobia: The Ideological Campaign Against Muslims. Clarity Press.
  • Shryock, Andrew, ed. (2010). Islamophobia/Islamophilia: Beyond the Politics of Enemy and buddy. Indiana University Press. p. 250. Essays on Islamophobia past and current; topics are the «neo-Orientalism» of three Muslim commentators today: Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Reza Aslan, and Irshad Manji.
  • Silva, Derek (2017). "The Othering of Muslims: Discourses of Radicalization inside ny occasions, 1969-2014", Sociological Forum, 32:1, 138–161.
  • Tausch, Arno with Christian Bischof, Tomaz Kastrun and Karl Mueller (2007). Against Islamophobia: Muslim Communities, Social-Exclusion and the Lisbon Process in European countries. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers.ISBN 978-1-60021-535-3.
  • Tausch, Arno with Christian Bischof, and Karl Mueller (2008). Muslim Calvinism: Internal safety together with Lisbon Process in Europe. Purdue University Press.ISBN 978-905170995-7.
  • Tausch, Arno (2007). Against Islamophobia: Quantitative Analyses of International Terrorism, World Political Cycles and Center Periphery Structures. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers.ISBN 978-1-60021-536-0.
  • Itaoui, Rhonda (2016). «The Geography of Islamophobia in Sydney: mapping the spatial imaginaries of young Muslims», in Australian Geographer. Vol 47:3, 261–79.

External links

Islamophobiaat Wikipedia's cousin tasks
  • Definitions from Wiktionary
  • Media from Wikimedia Commons
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  • Islamophobia Studies Journal – Islamophobia Research & Documentation venture, UC Berkeley
  • Reports – European Islamophobia – European Islamophobia Reports EIR
  • Islamophobia Today newsprint – an Islamophobia news clearing house
  • Sammy Aziz Rahmatti, Understanding and Countering Islamophobia
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