Internetworking With TCP/IP Essay


Describe about the Internetworking with TCP/IP.


Network Devices

Differences between Repeater, Switch, and Router

The repeater, switch and routers are the major components of a network (Ahn & Hong, 2013). Without the integration of any of the item, it is impossible to maintain the entire network. Repeater, Switch, and router all are used to transmit data from one source to another, but there are some differences which can categorize their usability over a network.




Repeaters are used to extend transmission signal by regenerating the source signal so the data loss can be minimized in a prominent way (Amis et al., 2012). Repeaters are mainly copied low signal and broadcast it through a proper channel. Repeater's working on the physical layer, Data layer and network layer.

The switch is a network device which is used to divide one single network link into multiple links. For this, a network can be accessible from multiple devices (Clausen etal., 2014). Unlike repeater, Switch does not extend the network signal it only broadcast a single signal into multiple signals. Switch work on data link layer and switches are also capable of packet error checking.

Routers are quite similar like Switch it also broadcast a single signal into multiple signals, but there is the slightest difference in working principal (Jinhua & Kejian, 2013). The switch is work on data link layer, so it transmits data to its targeted host port, but Router work on network layer and for this routers transmit data between two IP address.

The reason behind the complexity and cost of a router over the switch

Routers are working on network layer where a switch is working on the data layer, and it is notable that the Data link layer devices are quite, friendly connectivity than network layer based device. In data link layer two nodes communicate through their connection port and there nothing to configure before transmission (Marugan, 2013). But in the case of routers or network layer based devices, it is necessary to configure their IP address in proper method and for this, the complexity of connection is also rising. Routers are also equipped with packet forwarding technology which is based on ASIC hardware circuits and for this the routers are more costly than a switch.

The reason behind the complexity and cost of a switch over the Repeater

The repeaters are only used to regenerate signal by simply copying the existing transmission signal, but Switch is made to transmit data from one host to another in a precise manner (Mohapatra & Kanungo, 2012). So it is obvious that they are equipped with more circuitry to detect or identify targeted host and for this, the switches become more complex than a repeater. A switch is a high-density data layer Port Bridge with intelligence that forwards mac address and learns mac address to ports. A repeater is a layer one dumb device with simple functionality.

IP Addressing schemes

Selected IP Address

Net mask for the address

Wildcard Mask



Network Address

Usable Hosts IP range -

Network Broadcast Address

Hosts numbers in total


Usable hosts numbers



B ( -

List of networks for three network



Broadcast Address



Critical Router Selection

Figure: Complexity calculation

If both are central routers, then all will rely on the connections which are getting ended separately or coming with the help of R1 or R2 to the central area, If R1 goes down then associated or directed connections as a result of R1 will be lost the same case applies to R2. So both are critical relies on the traffic load.

Differences between distance vector routing and link state routing

Distance vector routing and link state routing both are used in routing protocols to forward network data packets. The main objective of both is to create a dynamic communication among two network path or nodes (Rosen, 2014). But there some differences which distinguish their usability and performances over a network integration.

Comparison table


Distance vector routing

Link-State Routing


Bellman-Ford algorithm used to calculate the shortest path to making a dynamic routing protocol.

Dijkstra's algorithm used to calculate the shortest path to making a dynamic routing protocol.

Transmission mechanism

Periodic transmission through neighbor routers.

All the routers are integrated with the same transmission signal.

CPU utilization

It uses less CPU cycles.

More CPU utilization due catch up complete topology.

Memory Uses

Smaller memory is required to swap the processing.

To store the complete topology information it needs more space for storing information and swapping through the processor.



OSPF, EGP etc.


ICMP role

ICMP or Internet control protocol is a different type of protocol which not used to routing information from one source to another (Sampath & Muhsin, 2013). The primary role of an ICMP protocol is generated and send the error report to the specified node which connected through a router. ICMP activated after initialization of router in a router and triggered a self-contained message to its router when an error occurs.

ICMP messages structure

The ICMP message structure is divided into two parts one is header and other is the Datagram part. An ICMP header contains a 4-byte information which also divided into three part, and they are –

  1. ICMP message type
  2. ICMP message subtype
  3. Checksum

ICMP Structure


Datagram Data (IP payload)

ICMP Header

IP Header

8 bytes payload

The purpose of the IP header

The base size of an ICMP message is 8 bytes. The biggest of the ICMP Packet is the router notice packet with up to 255 listings. The greatest size is then: 255 listings ? 8 bytes/listings + 8 bytes for the ICMP header = 2048 bytes.


Ahn, D., & Hong, S. (2013). A study on magnetic field repeater in wireless power transfer. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 60(1), 360-371.

Amis, A. D., Stevens, J. A., & Young, C. D. (2012). U.S. Patent No. 8,199,677. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Clausen, T., Dearlove, C., Jacquet, P., & Herberg, U. (2014). The optimized link state routing protocol version 2 (No. RFC 7181).

Jinhua, G., & Kejian, X. (2013). ARP spoofing detection algorithm using ICMP protocol. In Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI), 2013 International Conference on (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Marugan, G. A. M. (2013). PoS (ICMP 2013) 004 Combining loop and Fock quantizations for cosmological universes with perturbations.

Mohapatra, S., & Kanungo, P. (2012). Performance analysis of AODV, DSR, OLSR and DSDV routing protocols using NS2 Simulator. Procedia Engineering, 30, 69-76.

Rosen, R. (2014). Internet control message protocol (ICMP). In Linux Kernel Networking (pp. 37-61). Apress.

Sampath, A., & Muhsin, B. (2013). U.S. Patent Application No. 14/030,360.

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