Internet Standard Subnetting Procedure Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Internet Standard Subnetting Procedure.

Answer:

Introduction:

The network needs us to subnet the network into individual networks which are unequal. The IT department requires a sizeable subnet to accommodate 520 workstations and allow room for expansion as the sales department requires a smaller subnet to handle the 40 workstations.

The workstations will be interconnected by the Access points for all the devices that can access wireless internet and there will be a main switch from the main router from where all the other switches will be connected. All the other workstations will be connected via Ethernet cables because they are more reliable than the wireless network and less prone to errors and hitches.

For more efficiency in the implementation of the addressing space, using VLSMs is recommended to allow the use of different masks for every subnet (Moran, 2010). The VLSMs will assist in the creation of subnets large enough and with more than 255 addresses for the host. Use of the VLSM will enable us to assign IP addresses with a minimal number of IP addresses wastage thereby leaving a surplus.

All units will consist of a setup like the one shown below. The primary router will interconnect each unit to the main office. The router will connect to the main switch which will be connected to other switches that will connected to the end devices. The access point will have connected to the main router and some devices will connect to the network via the access point.

The router will be connected to the modem which will allow it to access internet and connect to the other routers from the other offices. All the routers will be connected to the internet via the virtual private network so that their IP addresses will not visible to other devices on the internet but not in the company’s private network.

Every department will have an Access Point which will make it easier connecting devices (Tanebaum, 2003).Switches interconnection and configuration as per the subnets is shown below.

The 10.0.0.0 IP address is a class A network. With the use of VLSM to allocate Internet Protocols in every department gives us the below subnets

The IT department needs the biggest range of IP addresses (Press). We shall, therefore, assign a high range of IP addresses as per the high usage requirements. It will, therefore, adopt subnet mask 255.255.252.0 and 10.0.0.0/22. The start IP address should be 10.0.0.1 and end IP 10.0.3.254 (Mogul & J., August 1985). Compared to the departmental demands, the subnet mask used will be the best in terms of wastage of IP addresses and allowing room for expansion.

The Office of Finance is 2nd in the IP address needs. Using a subnet mask of 255.255.254.0, the IP address will be 10.0.0.0/23. The start IP host address will be 10.0.0.1 and end with 10.0.1.254.

The Office of Transport and logistics is third in IP requirements and will consist of a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 and an IP address with 10.0.0.0/24. The beginning IP address will be 10.0.0.1 and end in 10.0.0.254.

The research office is holding approximate 120 workstations will fall under the 255.255.255.128 subnet mask. It will take a 25-subnet mask IP address of 10.0.0.0/25. Beginning IP address will be 10.0.0.1 and end IP will be 10.0.0.126. It will allow 125 host workstation which is the best fit for our research office department.

The head office has 60 workstations. It will, therefore, have a subnet mask of 255.255.255.192 with an IP address with 26 subnet mask bits of 10.0.0.0/26. Beginning IP address will be 10.0.0.1 and end with 10.0.0.62. This will be the best fit for our head office having sixty-one host IP addresses available.

The sales office has an approximate of 40 workstations. It will adopt a subnet mask of 255.255.255.192. It will have an IP address with 26 subnet masks of 10.0.0.0/26. Beginning IP address will be 10.0.0.1 and end IP will be 10.0.0.62.

The addressing solution leaves enough space for expansion within the departments and makes sure of minimal IP address wastage (Institute). With the research office having ten workstations, it is at a needful point with a subnet of 126 hosts. Further expansion of the office will require reviewing the entire addressing scheme.

The Head Office too is needful, with 60 workstations and a 62-host subnet. Loss of IP address is minimized by having two free addresses in the subnet. In case the office expands with an extra two workstations, the entire addressing scheme should be reviewed.

Using the VLSM addressing procedure fits well for the subnets since some are as large as 255 hosts like the IT department subnet. It should, therefore, be addressed a manner that will allow future expansion. It is also necessary to have small subnets to avoid loss of addresses. Using the method ensures there is minimal loss thus allowing room for growth.

The role of Network analyzers

The network requires close monitoring to ensure they are running correctly and that all devices in the workstations never experience down times (Press., 2004). It is important to monitor the network security to keep off intruders who might penetrates the system and to ensure no unauthorized personnel gets access to information he/she is not supposed to get.

The network administrator should give timely reports about the network. It's however hard for a network admin to continuously diagnose and detect operational and configurational problems in an expanding environment (Dye, McDonald, & Rufi, 2007).

According to (Cerf, 1974), analyzers play a significant role in assisting the network administrator in diagnosing and troubleshooting.

The M2M network administrator will have an easy task of troubleshooting and diagnosing the network if a need arises. The analyzer provides the required data source for monitoring and managing the system. They monitor the WAN and LAN status, statistics and security of endpoints. Having a continuous update of the network requires the admin to have an analyzer so that it identifies any upcoming issue in case a workstation is unable to transmit statistics (Abbate, 2000).

The analyzer will help in monitoring transmitted and received data packets by the nodes thus making it possible to filter and block malicious content from the network (Cerf, Vinton G., Kahn Robert E., 1979). They also verify any unusual change in the network, working with filters, proxies and firewalls.

Why we need a network analyzer in M2M

The entire network is secure if a network analyzer is adopted. The network consists of six subnets using a private IP network. It is therefore necessary to adopt a focal point in the diagnoses and troubleshooting of the network. (C., 2016).

There exist various network analyzers in the market of software developers. They only differ in the manner they intercept and log traffic on the network (James F. Kurose, 2008). Wireshark is among the best analyzers. It runs well on Unix and Windows platforms. It can view TCP sessions across all the protocols. Other network analyzers are based on consoles, but in Wireshark, the console is inclusive.

Wireshark should be kept up to date to minimize vulnerabilities and ensure the system remains bug-free and stable.

Data displayed on the screenshot is simple to understand and interpolate and easily understood by someone with less experience in network administration. Wireshark is open source and getting updates is easier.

References

Abbate, J. (2000). Inventing the Internet. Cambridge: MIT Press.

C., S. (2016). Network Security Architectures.

Cerf, V. G. (1974). A protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication.

Cerf, Vinton G., Kahn Robert E. (1979). The introduction of packet satellite communication.

Comer, D. (2000). Internetworking with TCP/IP Principles, protocols and architectures.

Dye, M., McDonald, R., & Rufi, A. (2007). Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion guide. Cisco Press.

Institute, I. S. (n.d.). Internet Protocol. Internet Program Protocol Specification. Retrieved from www.tools.ietf.org/html/frc791#page-7

James F. Kurose, K. W. (2008). Computer Networking.

Mogul, J., & J., P. (August 1985). Internet Standard Subnetting Procedure.

Moran, J. (2010, September 1). Understanding and resolving IP Address conflict. Retrieved from www.webopedia.com

Postel, J. (January 1980). Model of Operation. In I. S. Institute, DOD Standard Internet (p. 5). Marina del Rey, California: University of California.

Press, C. (n.d.). IP addressing guide. . Retrieved from www.cisco.com/web/about/ciscoitatwork/downloads/ciscoitatwork/pdf/Cisco_IT_IP_Addressing_Best_Practices.pdf

Press., C. (2004). Network Security Architectures. General Design Considerations for Secure Networks.

Tanebaum, A. S. (2003). Computer Networks.

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