International Trade And Economics Essay

Question:

Discuss about the International Trade and Economic Growth.

Answer:

A challenge for the worldwide economy is the likelihood that certain nations compete for specific export markets by means exaggeratedly low prices. Imposition of tariff is essentially suggested by political leaders as well as pundits in order to counterbalance the supposed price advantage and exert alterations of policy abroad. However, exponents often fail to comprehend the fact that this tariff policy is also hurting their own targets and becoming more costly at domestic market. Again, the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures of the World Trade Organization (WTO) permits a nation separately to apply a countervailing duty on imports of particular goods whose production has been subsidized. Other policies that do not fall under the WTO definition of subsidy counting undervaluation of currency and associated macroeconomic biases can have a net effect of decreasing export prices to a low level. In addition to this, there are political dialogue that concentrates on state action to act stringently with different partners of trade where export prices are flatly low. For instance the U.S Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (1988) that permitted industries to implement countervailing duties against assumed currency schemers. However, this kind of pressures and stringent are not confined to the U.S and is affecting the worldwide trade. Difficulty with this tactic is that it leads to industry lobbying grounded on conditions that can be considered to be less objective than an assessable financial subsidy. Moreover, countervailing shield may make trade partners to levy retaliatory tariffs that can perhaps lead to damaging trade wars. There is another downside with this kind of tariff; although they provide relief to different industries as well as workers that directly compete with the affected imports, this tariff leads to reduction of output, level of investment as well as employment in the entire economy. In the situation of shifting the demand towards domestically generated goods and increasing the prices of imports, a tariff would not increase both output as well as employment. The primary reason behind the negative aggregate influence of the tariff is that tariff that promises to improve the underlying balance position of position of the importer nation, leads to strengthening of the domestic currency in the market of foreign exchange, probably lessening GDP as well as employment. The given article also illustrates the effect of tariff using two different scenarios where East Asia does not essentially retaliate with tariff on imports and the other scenario that does not. However, under each circumstance, real GDP falls and, the dollar value increases. In addition to this, output also falls in the emerging East Asia. Besides this, retaliation also leads to less appreciation of dollar but on the other hand gross domestic product decreases more. In this case, real investment decreases, owing to decline in activity in the United States and increased prices of East Asian imports utilized in making different investment goods. A major reason behind the decrease in GDP is that exports decrease at the start by more amount than imports. However, the increase in tariffs on particularly East Asia directed importers to purchase from other nations in its place, and the appreciation of dollar strengthens the adjustment by undertaking substitute imports that are cheaper across board. Simultaneously, the strengthened dollar weighs down on U.S. exports.

Bibliography

Feenstra, R.C., 2015. Advanced international trade: theory and evidence. Princeton university press.

Helpman, E. and Razin, A., 2014. A theory of international trade under uncertainty. Academic Press.

Johnson, H.G., 2013. International Trade and Economic Growth (Collected Works of Harry Johnson): Studies in Pure Theory. Routledge.

McGovern, E., 2016. International trade regulation (Vol. 2). Globefield Press.

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