Sports management defines the field of business, which deals with management of sports and recreation. International sports represent business of multi-billion dollars. However, increasing corruption rate in the international business is reducing the reputation of the sports to the audiences (Ringuet-Riot et al., 2014). From poor governance to match fixing and money laundering all have become major part of sport corruption, which are disappointing the sports audiences all around the globe. This study will discuss the corruptions occurring in the international sports around the globe. Furthermore, the study will also suggest some prevention measures for preventing the corruptions in the international sports.
Actual and alleged corruption has been a long standing issue in international sports bodies. Such sport corruption is mostly occurred through the abuse of entrusted power for the private gain. Ordinary people are gradually losing their faith on the administrative bodies of the international sports management. From poor governance to bribery, match fixing, money laundering, many faces of corruption threaten the values of the sports. Two types of corruptions are most likely to occur in international sports, which are like management corruption and competition corruption. According to Numerato (2016), in management corruption, corruptions in sports are more likely to occur in terms of host venues for significant competition, allocation of rights, commissioning construction work and nomination of positions. On the other hand, Hoye et al. (2008) opined that in competition corruption, corruptions in sports are more likely to occur through athletics, athletics and officials, sporting officials and non-athletics.
Protecting the integrity of sports from match fixing and doping seems to be a high profile cause, especially with increasing concern over illegal gambling, organized crime and money laundering. Nichols and Ojala (2009) pointed out that referees and players can take bribes for fixing the matches, which lead to corruption in the sports. Oftentimes, club owners demand for kickbacks for player transfer towards fulfilling personal interest. Moreover, international sports have become a big business rather than genuine sports. On the other hand, there are also increasing organized crime behind the betting scandals, which has dented reputation of sports.
In 2015, a major corruption has been occurred in FIFA world Cup tournament. In this sport corruption, USA has indicted 14 current and former FIFA associates and officials with the charges of rampant, deep rooted and systematic corruption. Such corruption was investigated by Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Moreover, the alleged officials and associates have been arrested with the allegation of wire fraud, money laundering and racketeering in the FIFA games (Transparency.org, 2016). Such corruption has actually reduced the reputation of FIFA, which most watched football tournament in the world. On the other hand, in 2010, a cricket spot fixing scandal had been occurred in Pakistan cricket match. In this sport corruption, three Pakistan players had been accused of involvement in sport fixing scheme. Moreover, these three cricketers of Pakistan allegedly accepted large sum of money towards influencing particular events within a match, as opposed to actual match result (Masters, 2015). Though ICC banned these three players for the periods of 5-10 years, still people started to mistrust on the cricket players after such sports corruption.
In the year 2012, the former American road cyclist Lance Armstrong had been alleged with doping in his cycle race. In this corruption, the road cyclist injected drugs on himself for enhancing his sport performance for beating the competitors (Numerato, 2016). The cyclists had been suspended from his race after the investigation of doping through his blood samples. However, such corruption disappointed the ordinary audiences, who loved to watch cycling race. Furthermore, another sports corruption had been occurred in Australian opening of Tennis tournament. An investigation fueled suspicions of betting specifically at the lower level of sports. Tennis Integrity Units are in charge with the investigation of documents for such corruption. However, such corruption had created a lack of trust of the ordinary people on the tennis players and administrative departments.
In order to fix the problem of corruption in sports, the authorities of the sports should be highly open for their decisions and policies. Moreover, the policies should be communicated with the officials and associates and players of the sports. It will keep them aware of the effects of corruption in the sports. Thus, such openness of polices can keep the sports officials, players and associates away from sport corruption. Furthermore, Government of individual countries all around the world must work in collaboration with the anti-fraud organizations and international sports industry (Murray & Pigman, 2014). They should constantly follow the money in betting. Moreover, such close collaboration of government with the anti-fraud organizations and international sports industry will keep the investigation active on the sports management. It will ultimately reduce the chance of corruption in the sports. The sporting organizations should strictly write the anti-corruption measures in their constitution and set proper code of conduct for preventing the corruption in the sports (Shearer, 2014). Strict regulation and openness in the player transfer can protect the employment market. It should be ensured that the rules are actively enforced for preventing the corruption rate in sports. The bidding process of sports should be closely monitored for making sure that the process is fair enough
While concluding the study, it can be said that corruptions in the international sports have become an increasing concern for the global sports industry. Moreover, corruptions in the international sports are disappointing the ordinary people, who have great interest in watching the international games. The major types of corruption in the international sports are like match fixing, money laundering, player transfer and many more. Such increasing corruption rates are actually reducing the reputation of international sports to the audiences. Hence, the Government of the individual country should work in collaboration with the anti-fraud organizations and sports industry for preventing increasing corruption rate in international sports.
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