International Security Studies: Criminal Justice Essay

Question:

Discuss about the International Security Studies for Criminal Justice.

Answer:

Policy Brief to the United States’ Ambassador to the United Nations on the Myanmar Government’s Decision to End of the Crisis, October 2017

Mr /Mrs,

The recent decision for the solution of the crisis in the Rohingya has been interrupted due to several reasons. The violation of the human rights in the Rohingya has been the main reason for the crisis in the region. Rohingya, Myanmar has been an extreme backward region with having limited facilities for livelihood. The basic facilities of living has not been provided to the region that have caused aggression in people of Rohingya. More than 500,000 Rohingya have left their homes within a month in neighbouring Bangladesh (Parnini, Othman and Ghazali 2013). The discrimination with the people on various basis have been creating violence among people of Rohingya. Actually, Rohingya are the Muslim Minority group of Myanmar’s Raphine State having a population of approximately 1.1 million. These people are considered as the lowest minority group in Myanmar (Beyrer and Kamarulzaman 2017). The government of the country have not recognized their identity in the national identity record. The Myanmar military have been executing a campaign for cleansing against the Rohingya people. The situation in the state has been worse due to the crisis. The Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh have been burning their homes, shooting, stabbing and raping in the state. The violence has been increasing with the negligence of the Myanmar Government.

In October 2016, an insurgent group of Rohingya Refuges named as Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), causes attack on the border guard post and killing nine police officers (Singh and Haziq 2016). The High Commissioner of the UN have published the stories of rape and civic violence scenario in the report.

The Government of Bangladesh has published various documents related to the official complaints for laying land mines along border of Myanmar (Prodip 2017). This causes aggression in the army and causing damage to the Rohingya people. The High Commissioner for Human Rights in the United Nations carried out interviews with the fled people of Rohingya and concluded that abuses are happening due to the crisis in the human rights and humanity. The current crisis began in August 2017 after attacks of ARSA on 30 police officers (Khan et al. 2016). There have been various cases abut raping, shooting, sexual assault and burning of the people in this crisis. The human rights of the people has been continuously violated in the Rohingya region. There has been a controversial report by the Myanmar government regarding the Rohingya crisis by disallowing the United Nation to conducts an investigation (Hoffstaedter 2017).

In July 2017 report, the documented file reported that 87,000 Rohingya who had fled away in Bangladesh are facing several humanitarian challenges in living (Murray 2016). These challenges includes inability to get shelter, food and gender-biased. The United nation has been affected by this crisis in Rohingya. The UN has been allowed to interfere in this matter for investigating it. The Government has announced several plans for the refugees to build more than 14,000 shelters over 2000 acres of land. There has been serious challenges in the implementing of the plans into practice (Ahsan Ullah 2016). The civilians were not ready to understand the situation in the state and were out of control of the militants. The US government has provided $32 million in humanitarian aid. This have helped in maintaining the financial crisis among the refugees. While the UN and Red Cross have expanded guide to the Bangladesh border, where such a large number of Rohingya have fled, specialists are unable to see a fleeting future in which the Rohingya can live gently and with rise to rights inside Myanmar's outskirts (Kneebone 2017). The High Commissioner for Human Rights in the United Nations carried out interviews with the fled people of Rohingya and concluded that abuses are happening due to the crisis in the human rights and humanity.

The European Union’s humanitarian aid department (ECHO) has helped in providing funds for the relief programs in the Rakhine state. Since 2010, ECHO has provided more than €76 million in humanitarian aid. ECHO has additionally been giving critical subsidizing to life help to the unregistered Rohingya people in Bangladesh in Cox's Bazar region through global NGOs and the UN (Milton et al. 2017). Since 2007, near € 35 million have been allotted for fundamental human services, water, sanitation, shield, nourishment, assurance and mental help, incorporating €4.5 million out of 2017. The UN should provide support to the Advisory Commission on Rakhine State, which is led by former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan. Aside from this life-sparing guide, ECHO will keep on advocating for better correspondence with the uprooted populaces and a more insurance situated emotionally supportive network (Kneebone 2017). Since 2013 ECHO has designated more than € 1.1 million to IOM, incorporating € 200 000 out of 2017, to give nourishment, essential family things, medicinal services and assurance to somewhere in the range of 3 000 Rohingya men, ladies and kids kept in Thailand after purportedly entering the nation wrongfully to travel advance away from home (Silove, Ventevogel and Rees 2017). The discrimination with the people on various basis have been creating violence among people of Rohingya. Actually, Rohingya are the Muslim Minority group of Myanmar’s Raphine State having a population of approximately 1.1 million. These people are considered as the lowest minority group in Myanmar. The government of the country have not recognized their identity in the national identity record.

This aggregate incorporates a territorial philanthropic reaction to the mass oceanic relocation in 2015, named the 'boatpeople emergencies of the Andaman Sea, which saw countless outcasts and Bangladeshi vagrants escaping their nations of origin in scan for a place of refuge in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia (Smith 2017). The refusal of the experts to enlist Rohingya at birth or give marriage endorsements and other common documentation makes it hard to evaluate the size of the philanthropic necessities of these individuals, a considerable lot of whom live in troublesome conditions with insufficient nourishment admission and eating regimen expansion, or access to wellbeing mind. Without lawful status they are additionally unfit to seek after instruction also, formal business openings, and remain helpless against misuse and genuine security dangers (Devictor and Do 2017). The August 2017 brutality in Myanmar's Rakhine state activated another enormous inundation of Rohingya evacuees running over the outskirt, extending the limits of helpful offices working there, which had just been stressed since the past convergence in October 2016. The policies used in controlling the situation in Rohingya has been properly differentiated between the realist and liberal. According to the liberal point of view, the people in the district has been suffering firm various discrimination. Therefore, the policies needs to control and finish those inequalities in the district. The policies have to accommodate all the basic facilities of the people in the district. The realist focuses in the steps taken by the government for the benefit of refugees in that region.

The UN Security Council might impose multi-lateral arms in the Rohingya district to meet the requirements of the people and carrying out necessary relief programs. The government have to provide various clinical facilities to control the spread of diseases among people of Rakhine district. The civil violence have to be controlled by strong military actions. The emotions of the people have to be secured that might help in minimizing stress in the situation. The government have to help in providing their basic human rights, as they are citizens of the country. The refusal of the experts to enlist Rohingya at birth or give marriage endorsements and other common documentation makes it hard to evaluate the size of the philanthropic necessities of these individuals, a considerable lot of whom live in troublesome conditions with insufficient nourishment admission and eating regimen expansion, or access to wellbeing mind. The people are seen as minorities that requires being change by providing them equal rights and opportunities like others. This might create a lot of difference in the situation. Different educational education needs to be constructed in the region for educating the small children of various families. Educating those help in making them understand about the drawbacks of the crisis. The UN Security Council have to put a target sanction for the Senior General of Myanmar and other security officers for providing security to the refuges in the Rakhine District. The UN Security Council should allow data collection with the help of UN Human Rights Council for identifying other risks in refugees and hold in the human rights abuses in the region. The UN have to provide extra funds in the region for motivating people in the Rakhine district. The US government have to support the policies of the UN Security Council for developing the situation in the Rakhine State. The US government have to control the military-to-military cooperation in Myanmar that is creating chaos in the civilians. The Government have to support the humanitarian aid for providing food and shelter to refugees. A proper sanitation and environment needs to be provided by the US government that helps in maintaining a clean environment for the refugees.

References

Ahsan Ullah, A.K.M., 2016. Rohingya Crisis in Myanmar: Seeking Justice for the “Stateless”. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 32(3), pp.285-301.

Beyrer, C. and Kamarulzaman, A., 2017. Ethnic cleansing in Myanmar: the Rohingya crisis and human rights. The Lancet.

Devictor, X. and Do, Q.T., 2017. How many years have refugees been in exile?. Population and Development Review, 43(2), pp.355-369.

Hoffstaedter, G., 2017. Refugees, Islam, and the State: The Role of Religion in Providing Sanctuary in Malaysia. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 15(3), pp.287-304.

Khan, M.S., Osei-Kofi, A., Omar, A., Kirkbride, H., Kessel, A., Abbara, A., Heymann, D., Zumla, A. and Dar, O., 2016. Pathogens, prejudice, and politics: the role of the global health community in the European refugee crisis. The Lancet infectious diseases, 16(8), pp.e173-e177.

Kneebone, S. ed., 2017. Comparative Regional Protection Frameworks for Refugees. Taylor & Francis.

Milton, A.H., Rahman, M., Hussain, S., Jindal, C., Choudhury, S., Akter, S., Ferdousi, S., Mouly, T.A., Hall, J. and Efird, J.T., 2017. Trapped in Statelessness: Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(8), p.942.

Murray, J.S., 2016. Displaced and forgotten child refugees: A humanitarian crisis. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 21(1), pp.29-36.

Parnini, S.N., Othman, M.R. and Ghazali, A.S., 2013. The Rohingya refugee crisis and Bangladesh-Myanmar relations. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 22(1), pp.133-146.

Prodip, M.A., 2017. Health and Educational Status of Rohingya Refugee Children in Bangladesh. Journal of Population and Social Studies [JPSS], 25(2), pp.135-146.

Silove, D., Ventevogel, P. and Rees, S., 2017. The contemporary refugee crisis: an overview of mental health challenges. World Psychiatry, 16(2), pp.130-139.

Singh, J. and Haziq, M., 2016. The Rohingya Crisis: Regional Security Implications.

Smith, T., 2017. Aung San Suu Kyi has no excuse for staying silent on the Rohingya crisis.

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