International Review Of Management And Business Research Essay


Discuss about the Facts and terms for International Review of Management and Business Research.


Research Reflection Report

My Response

1. Research Method and process

I have made an effective secondary research based on the case study of Pret a manger. In order to collect sufficient data and information, I have used appropriate research methodology. Research method is one of the major parts of a research based on which necessary data and information are gathered for accomplishing the project. While conducting this particular research I have used post positivism research philosophy, deductive approach and descriptive research design. I have conducted an effective research on the case study of Pret a manger. In order to collected sufficient data and information I have collected some books and journals of different renowned scholars who have provided their in-depth overview about the importance of organizational culture and behavior on the performance of employees as well as on the psychology of the employees.

I have applied positivism philosophy for this particular project in order to accumulate data and information. I as a positivist believe that observation is repeatable whereas the phenomenon is isolated. With the help of repeated observation, I was able to get the essence of data. In addition, the entire project that I have conducted is of low cost. I have made a keen observation regarding the business strategies and policies of business organizations for maintaining organizational behavior. The books and journals of renowned scholars have helped me immensely in order to accomplish the research effectively. Positivism philosophy is the only one with the help of which I have made this repeated observation from case studies for collecting necessary data and information.

Research approach is nothing but the process of showing a proper gesture and attitude based on which I intended to collect data and information. In this major project, I have utilized the positive aspects of deductive approach. Deductive approach is completely based on case study. Before conducting the entire research work, I have gone through the case study of Pret a manger. Brand essence, product price and the contribution of the employees for rendering the success of organization are the primary aim of this specific research. As per the experience gathered from the case study, I can evaluate that organizational culture and behavior is highly dependent on the psychology of employees. A business organization is dealt with the employees from various cultures and backgrounds. Therefore, linguistic barriers, psychological barriers come among the employees. They feel least interested to share important information with each other. This ultimately hampers the entire process of business organization. Therefore, before recruiting an individual employee, the human resource managers should provide a clear knowledge about the importance of organizational culture and behavior.

In addition, while conducting the research methodology process I have used secondary source of data in order to make the research paper more effective. While collecting secondary source of data and information I have gone through the articles of some conspicuous scholars who have left their opinion regarding the organizational culture and behavior, the importance of effective customer service system at the workplace. Secondary data collection procedure is constituted with several types that include case study analysis, observational analysis, thematic analysis and focus group analysis (Dauber, Fink and Yolles 2012). Case study analysis is based on the case study of a particular person or a business organization. This specific research has focused to deal with the case study of Pret a manger. After evaluating the point of views of some of the renowned scholars, I have come into a sound conclusion. I have critically evaluated the positive and negative impact of organizational culture on the performance of employees. The importance of marketing mix for promoting the organizational products and services has also been highlighted in this particular case study.

2. Literature and Sources

I have gone through the article ‘Impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: an overview’ published by Shahzad et al. (2012) in order to get an in-depth overview about the point of views of different scholars. This article has primarily focused to highlight the positive impacts of organizational culture. Organizational culture is nothing but the ethics, beliefs and values of a particular business organization based on which the managers tend to run their business in the current market. Employees after getting involved within the entire process of business need to have a clear knowledge about the organizational values and ethics. New comers should always get an effective training on how to maintain organizational culture at the workplace. This particular article has also focused to highlight the impact of implementing diversity management at the workplace. Both the positive as well as negative impacts of implementing diversity management have been pointed out here.

From the previous literature review I have pointed out that, the author has primarily emphasized on the negative impact of diversity management that hampers organizational culture and behavior. In my own literature review, I have focused to discuss on two theories primarily based on which the employees can understand about the importance of organizational behavior. Behavioral theory is one of the most effective theories that every employee should follow at the time of performance. This particular theory believes that employees have to be accustomed with the changing process of technology as well as environment. With the dynamic progress of civilization, the needs and demands of the employees change rapidly. Therefore, employees should maintain organizational behavior by accepting the current needs of customers. I personally believe that customer satisfaction is one of the most vital factors of maintaining organizational image. Therefore, customers can be satisfied only when the employees tend to maintain a decent culture at the workplace. The communication among the employees, the integrity, their ways of approach towards each other reflects on the employee performance (Erkutlu 2012). Therefore, every business organization should follow behavioral theory emphatically.

In addition, in my major project I have mentioned motivational theory as well. The employees can perform well towards the business service only when they get enough motivation and enthusiasm from the managers. As per my point of view, business managers should implement participative leadership style at the workplace. With the help of participative leadership style, employees get the opportunity to share their own point of views regarding the business goal. Managers before making a particular business strategy and policy like to involve the employees in order to know their point of views (Khan and Rashid 2012). Consequently, employees feel themselves motivated to provide effective service to the organization.

Therefore, implementing motivation theory inside the process of business is highly important to get the best services from employees. In order to justify my opinion, I have pointed out the views of some of the eminent scholars. I have experienced that the point of views of eminent scholars have a major contribution for making my evaluation and analytical ability stronger. Their in-depth way of expression about the importance of organizational behavior and culture has taught me to learn how to analysis a critical literature being completely unbiased towards anyone. In addition, I have gathered immense knowledge about the effectiveness of behavioral theory as well as motivational theory. I have highlighted the previous literature review in order to find some of the major gaps. The author in this specific article did not mention positive impact of maintaining organizational culture. While I was dealing with literature review part, I have tried to recover the previous literature review gap.

3. My Knowledge

After conducting the entire research work, I have gained immense knowledge from different perspectives. Firstly, I have understood from the case study analysis on how organization should maintain employee behavior and discipline at the workplace. It has been observed that employees have to face immense challenges in order to adjust with the people of various culture and background. Communication barriers in between the employees hamper the rhythmic flow of business. They have stated in this regard that managers as well have to face immense difficulties in order to take an important decision due to the psychological gap in between the employees. People of different culture and background cannot respect each other’s values and beliefs. As a result, organizational culture and discipline are hampered. However, after evaluating the case study I have come into a conclusion that employees should know the essence of behavioral theory while working at the organization.

While collecting data from numerous journals, I have come to know that organizational success is highly dependent on the performance of employees. The customer service system plays a major role in it. If employees stay connected with each other by sharing necessary information, the customers are highly benefited and facilitated. Furthermore, I have learnt at the time of conducting the major project that participants intend to provide sufficient data and information only when they consider the research issue logical and vital for current generation. They have also realized that employee performance is getting hampered day-by-day due to some of the major reasons. Maintaining organizational culture and behavior are one of the most effective reasons for good performance of the employees. Therefore, I have received a full co-operation and support from the employees as well as from the managers for providing relevant data.

4. My Learning

While undertaking an MBA program, I have learnt the importance of management for running a business organization properly. Management is undoubtedly one of the prestigious parts of a business organization that keeps a constant control over the entire process of business. The persons who tend to handle the management division must have business administrative background so that they can control different hardships with the business process. MBA professionals know how to deal with the customers as well as employees by maintaining professionalism in their gesture and attitude. I have also learnt from the MBA program why the managers should maintain employee relation at the workplace. The interpersonal communication in between the managers and the employees has to be strong so that employees can feel free to share their opinion regarding the business goal. As a result, employees tend to show their interest to provide an effective service to the customers. That is one of the most vital reasons of maintaining employment relation at the workplace. MBA program is the platform where all these positive aspects of business administration have been highlighted.

While conducting my research on the case study of Pret a manger, I have utilized those aspects that I have learnt from MBA program. Many eminent scholars who had delivered valuable speeches on the importance of having MBA degree for running an organization have been highlighted in my literature review. In this particular part, I have pointed out that why the employees need to maintain organizational ethics at the time of performance. At the time of utilizing deductive approach within the process of business, I have made an effective case study on Pret a manger regarding the employee satisfaction level. I have learnt from the organizational case study that diversity management has become a major issue for the business organization as it has both positive as well as negative impact. Human resource managers should recruit the employees as per their skill and competency rather than their cultural background.

If I personally get a scope to apply my knowledge in the practical field that I have learnt from the major project, I would like to suggest of implementing diversity management at the workplace in different way based on which the employees do not have to suffer difficulties in maintaining organizational culture and behavior. I would like to suggest the human resource managers to recruit those employees within the business process who are comfortable enough to deal with the people of different culture and attitude. In addition, the management can provide an effective training to the employees regarding the importance of diversity management for rendering the success of a business organization. After receiving an effective training, the employees would try their best to respect each other’s culture and belief. As a result, the unity within the organization would be maintained.

The employees would be able to perform well in an effective business organization. As per the point of view of (Hu et al. 2012), diversity management is not the only way for maintaining organizational culture and behavior at the workplace. The managers have to conduct interpersonal communication at least once in a week, provide repeated training for grooming them up and arrange reward ceremony at least once in a year so that employees get motivation to perform well.

5. Critical thinking of your ideas

Before conducting a research on this particular topic, I was not aware of many relevant facts and information. In literature review part, I have critically analyzed the opinions of some of the eminent scholars who have left immense contributions for evaluating effectives theories such as behavioral theory, motivational theory, consistency theory and so many. As per the point of views of some of the eminent authors, I have evaluated that organization can never succeed without the response of employees (Awadh and Alyahya 2013). In order to get a full response from the employees, organization should follow some of the major steps. Implementing democratic leadership at the workplace is one of the major steps that the organizational managers should strictly follow. Democratic leadership allows the employees to share their own opinion regarding the business goal. The managers never tend to impose their decision on the employees. At the time of forming business strategy, the managers should take a collective decision regarding business target meeting. In that particular decision making process, both the managers and the employees have equal contribution for the success of business organization.

After conducting the entire research work, I have realized that I could have used post-positivism philosophy rather than only positivism. With the help of positivism philosophy, I have collected data and information that are based on repeated observation. I have observed from the case study in order to know the organizational culture and behavior of this particular company. After making a keen observation from different perspectives, I have interpreted data and information for accomplishing the research perfectly. On the other hand, post-positivism philosophy is more updated and modified where only observation is not sufficient for conducting a perfect research work. When observation is amalgamated with appropriate evidence, the entire process is called post-positivism philosophy. In addition, with the help of post-positivism philosophy, I could collect more current and updated data and information from numerous sources. Furthermore, apart from behavioral theory and motivational theory I should give emphasize on consistency theory as well in order to deal with the entire project more perfectly.

6. Barriers Meet

While conducting the research as well as the major project I faced innumerable barriers in order to collect proper source of information. The first barrier that I had faced while collecting data was selecting proper article to provide appropriate data regarding the research issue. At the time of dealing with the participants, I had faced innumerable challenges to get sufficient information only from the case study and some of the few articles. Therefore, I tried my best to collect information form secondary resources especially from books and journals.

I had to face immense difficulties to accomplish the entire project by depending on secondary data resources only. With the help of secondary data resources, I had to depend on journals and books reviews only. As a result, I failed to collect the opinions of various employees as well as organizational managers about the practical experiences. Bookish definition was not sufficient for conducting this research effectively. Therefore, I had to invest immense time for searching appropriate data from secondary data resources. On the other hand, among the four processes of secondary data collection method I intended to use case study analysis. Case study was based on Pret a manger. In this particular case study, the importance of organizational culture and behavior has been pointed out from different perspectives. I had to face a major obstacles to come into a conclusion about the which particular opinion should I receive for an ideal concept for my research paper. This case study provided important data and information regarding the business goal. As a result, the barriers that I faced at the time of conducting the research, was achievable. I tried my best to overcome the obstacles of major project effectively.

In addition, due to the limited time, I had to select secondary data analysis. As a result, I could not get the opportunity to receive a feedback from the employees of various organizations in order to know their reactions regarding the importance or implementing organizational culture and behavior. With the help of survey method, I could have interacted with the employees directly. I have missed this scope in this research due to limited time. As a result, I had to face immense difficulties for collecting sufficient data and information from various journal articles.

7. Professional development

The entire research work has helped me to improve my personal skill and competency. I have acquired number of management skill after interacting with the managers of various business organizations. In addition, I came to know that leadership style and organizational ethics are the most two important factors for maintaining organizational behavior. Before conducting the research, I was unable to make an effective communication with others. I used to fumble and falter before establishing my point of views. At the time of collecting secondary data, I had to interact with the people from various culture and attitude. As a result, I also came to know how to present myself amidst the group of people. In addition, the impact of participative leadership style, effective interpersonal communication at the workplace, maintaining organizational culture and ethics within the organization are some of the necessary factors in order to gain the organizational success and reputation.

Therefore, if I am appointed in the post of a business manager in a particular organization, I would like to implement these management strategies and policies within my organization. In addition, this particular research helps to teach me why business organizations tend to provide effective training to the employees. Generally, one particular new comer after joining within a business organization is not able to become accustomed with the new organizational environment. In this kind of situation, this new comer hesitates to interact with the employees as well as managers. In order to make those new comers flexible and groomed with the professional environment, the company tends to provide an effective training. Whenever, I would get a scope to run a business organization I would like to provide business training to all my seniors. In addition, after interacting with some of organizational managers, my communication skill, my way of approach, my voice modulation have been improved.

8. Objectives

The primary objectives of undertaking MBA program is to

· To acquire detail knowledge and skill about the importance of having business administration degree for running an organization successfully

· To provide knowledge what is the difference between a trained manager and an untrained manager

· To critically evaluate why a business organization should have a management division

As per my first research objective, I have gone through an article of Eccles, Ioannou and Serafeim (2012) about the importance of having management degree for running an organization successfully. As per the point of views of these scholars, it can be stated that a person having management degree is more efficient to make an effective interaction with the employees. Organizational managers should know very well how to get a good performance from the employees that renders organizational success. Therefore, the employees even feel free to share their problems with the managers regarding their job profile. An untrained employee would never be able to maintain that rapport with the existing staff.

Therefore, from this specific answer, it is clear and evident that trained manager is always effective for a business organization to maintain its discipline and behavior at the workplace. While making an effective interview with the business administrative manager, I came to know that management tends to keep a constant control over the entire process of business. If a particular employee fails to perform well, management has to take an immediate action in order to come back this person into the rhythmic flow. Therefore, in order to record the growth of business process, the importance of management division for a particular business organization is truly undeniable. Therefore, the objectives that I have set for my major projects have been fulfilled successfully.

9. Findings and outcome

It is expected that my major project would definitely help the future employers in order to make them understand about the importance of organizational culture and behavior, the role of managers, importance of promotion and marketing mix at the workplace. The employers before running an organization would like to implement organizational ethics, values and beliefs for maintaining a discipline at the workplace. In addition, employees would come to realize how the organizational culture motivates an employee personally for performing well. As a result, the future employers before setting a business plan would focus on maintaining organizational structure and policy first.

The entire study has focused to deal with the importance of organizational culture and behavior for the success of a business growth. After completing the entire project, I have realized that the entire research issue has intended to focus on a specific part that includes organizational cultural effects. The importance of diversity management, the impact of participative leadership style has already been pointed out. Therefore, I should focus to discuss on the impact of maintaining organizational behavior on the performance of employees as well as on the satisfaction level of customers. My research has already missed the part of customer satisfaction level.

Reference List

Awadh, A.M. and Alyahya, M.S., 2013. Impact of organizational culture on employee performance. International Review of Management and Business Research, 2(1), p.168.

Dauber, D., Fink, G. and Yolles, M., 2012. A configuration model of organizational culture. Sage Open, p.2158244012441482.

Eccles, R.G., Ioannou, I. and Serafeim, G., 2012. The impact of a corporate culture of sustainability on corporate behavior and performance (No. W17950). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Erkutlu, H., 2012. The impact of organizational culture on the relationship between shared leadership and team proactivity. Team Performance Management: An International Journal, 18(1/2), pp.102-119.

Hu, Q., Dinev, T., Hart, P. and Cooke, D., 2012. Managing employee compliance with information security policies: The critical role of top management and organizational culture. Decision Sciences, 43(4), pp.615-660.

Khan, S.K. and Rashid, M.Z.A., 2012. The Mediating Effect of Organizational Commitment in the Organizational Culture, Leadership and Organizational Justice Relationship with Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Study of Academicians in Private Higher Learning Institutions in Malaysia.International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(8).

Shahzad, F., Luqman, R.A., Khan, A.R. and Shabbir, L., 2012. Impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: an overview.Interdisciplinary journal of contemporary research in business, 3(9), p.975.

Shao, Z., Feng, Y. and Liu, L., 2012. The mediating effect of organizational culture and knowledge sharing on transformational leadership and Enterprise Resource Planning systems success: An empirical study in China.Computers in Human Behavior, 28(6), pp.2400-2413.

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