International Relations: Citizenship And Masculinity Essay

Question:

Discuss about the International Relations for Citizenship and Masculinity.

Answer:

Forrest, A., (2007). Citizenship and masculinity: the revolutionary citizen-soldier and his legacy. Representing masculinity: male citizenship in modern Western culture, pp.111-129.

The information obtained from Alan Forrest’s work in Citizenship and Masculinity: The revolutionary citizen-soldier and his legacy provide the insights about the impact of World War I on the divergent of the citizenship of women. The study mainly represents the exploration of the maleness of political cultured in the post World War period (Forrest, 2007). It is self-evident that the male sphere turned out to be the representative of the politics. The gender biasness was portrayed much significantly in this article in the post world war period. The dominating male views were mostly prioritized in the field of politics. The transformation in men’s citizenship is highlighted that mostly dominating the point of view of the women. Furthermore, another article provides the glimpse of the life of citizen soldier who are deprived from their future as they had to sacrifice their life in the war. This work of Alan Forrest is clearly focusing on the masculinity that can create the new perspectives on the political culture that provokes the reader to explore more on this research area.

Dwyer, P. G. (2009). It Still Makes Me Shudder. War in History, 16(4).

The article, ‘It Still Makes Me Shudder’ by Philip G. Dwyer represents a number of French testimonies of the massacre that took place during the Napoleonic and Revolutionary Wars occurred between the combatants and civilians. The memoir presented in this work represents the justification of killing either from the point of view of the individual or from the point of views of the witnesses. The entire work provides the ideas about the Massacre, which is conceptualized as the means of underlining difficulties that was observed by the French while conquering civilians in Europe (Dwyer, 2009). The study concludes with the confusion whether to accept or not accept the warfare that took place in the eighteenth century. The article represents the idea that the war is justified if it is compared to the point of view of any state or individual. On the other hand, it is also noticed that the witnesses present in the war consider it much condemning as people loss their life. It mainly suggests the horrifying nature of war that leaves the soldiers shattered. However, the description of the war is explained by suggesting the horror faced by the witnesses during the time of Massacre.

Goldich, R. L. (2011). American military culture from colony to empire. Daedalus, 140(3), 58-74.

The article, American Military Culture from Colony to Empire by Robert L. Goldich represents the rise of the citizen-soldiers after the war. It was mentioned that the wars were during those periods were frequent. The peacetime Army participated in the war did not focus in the instant fights; rather they concentrated on developing the citizen-soldier. The article also defines that the Army became the force and called for the fights at any point of time at the end of the Cold War (Goldich, 2011). True citizen soldier is defined as the person who serves for only few years as a civilian and does not return in the foreseeable future. The description in the article also determines the nostalgia of their passing. It is noticed that the Army with the flint, harsh, and emotionally extreme behaviour remained in the midst of a civilian society that is increasingly easygoing, pacifistic, and well-adjusted.

Krebs, R. R. (2009). The citizen-soldier tradition in the United States: Has its demise been greatly exaggerated?. Armed Forces & Society, 36(1), 153-174.

The article, “The citizen-soldier tradition in the United States: Has its demise been greatly exaggerated? Armed Forces & Society” by Ronald R. Krebs represents the tradition of the Citizen Soldier during nineteenth century. It is exclaimed that the tradition of the citizen-soldier is demised. The article develops the understanding of the all-volunteer force (AVF) that was assumed to be eliminated (Krebs, 2009). However, the reading suggests the clear linking between the citizenship and the military services. The explanation presented by the critic highlights that the tradition of the citizen-soldier is one form of the rhetorical conventions. The tropes continue to feature the political debates in the United States. The perspective is implying that the death of the citizen soldier did not condemn; rather it provides a new lease on life of these soldiers.

Linking of the Approach with the Historical Contingency

The approach taken in this context is the rise of the citizen soldier in war making in the nineteenth century. It provides the idea of the life of citizen soldier, who took participation in the war and sacrificed the lives. The memoir represented the justification of war, which cost the life of a citizen soldier. It is perceived that the war is justified if it is compared to the point of view of any state or individual. On the other hand, it is also noticed that the witnesses present in the war consider it much condemning as people loss their life. The trauma of the war is highlighted in this context. The shattered soldier could not even bear the horrified war scenario, but they had to face the reality (Dwyer, 2009). The continuous outflow of the emotions is presented in this article, which is quite relatable to my approach. My research study is also focusing on the visible transformation during the war due to the rise of these citizen soldiers. It clearly portrays the pathetic outbursts of the witnesses who had been watching these people dying in the war.

Another article suggests the rise of the male dominated citizenship that created the significant impact on the political field (Forrest, 2007). It is shown that the rise of citizen soldier transformed the perspectives of the political parties and formed a new sovereignty, which was inclined towards the male point of views. In such cases, the transformation in women’s citizenship is highlighted. Furthermore, another article provides the glimpse of the life of citizen soldier who are deprived from their future as they had to sacrifice their life in the war. The loss of lives created the impacts on the civilians who took part on these wars. It is noticeable that they were the witnesses of such demises, which were, according to them, quite painful. In spite of their pacifistic and emotionally extremity nature, they had to fight in the midst of harsh realities by concealing their emotions. It represents the hardships of the war life that affected the civilians’ mental perspectives during nineteenth century.

The final article represents the maintenance of the traditional approach of citizen soldier. It provides the idea of the harshness of their lives during the war. However, their continuous outflow of the emotions is here perceived as the positive traits. It is depicted that the demise of the citizen soldiers does not represent the loss; rather the perspectives should be on the positive side more significantly (Goldich, 2011). It is highlighted that instead of focusing on their sacrifice, it should be perceived that the death brings to them a new lease for life (Krebs, 2009). My approach is to define such transformation faced after the war period. The diverse perspectives analyzed by these readings provide the fruitful ideas about such transformation. Moreover, it even suggests the perspectives of the civilians during the war period. Their mental situations are clearly portrayed during the war period when they had to face the harsh reality of losing the soldiers who are nothing but the ordinary citizens. However, the war was perceived as the most important aspect during such situation and therefore, the death of the citizen soldiers was more prioritized that their lives. It creates the clear lining between the readings and my approach to define the visible transformation during and after nineteenth century.

References

Dwyer, P. G. (2009). It Still Makes Me Shudder. War in History, 16(4).

Forrest, A., (2007). Citizenship and masculinity: the revolutionary citizen-soldier and his legacy. Representing masculinity: male citizenship in modern Western culture, pp.111-129.

Goldich, R. L. (2011). American military culture from colony to empire. Daedalus, 140(3), 58-74.

Krebs, R. R. (2009). The citizen-soldier tradition in the United States: Has its demise been greatly exaggerated?. Armed Forces & Society, 36(1), 153-174.

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