Political and religious dilemmas are the two major causes of suffering from an intense crisis in the regions of Middle East. The impact of Ottoman Empire and Western Colonialism was intensely affected on the lifestyle of Saudi Arabian people. From the tear 1979, at the time of Iranian revolution the inter-relation between the Saudi Arabia and Iran got demolished. The ongoing dispute renders an ultimate crisis on the education, economy and day-to-day life style of Saudi Arabia. Based on that dilemma, it can be evaluated that the allocation of power and strength between Saudi Arabia and Iran rendered a division between the two countries.
Foreign policy development process is primarily applied for the development of countries based on which the nations’ interest and policies can be safeguard. Some of the important countries of Middle East include Turkey, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and Qatar. USA in the year 1919 intended to apply authoritarian theory based on which they could rule the neighbor countries due to their emerging political power and economical strength. At that time, the foreign policy development affected highly in order to maintain a strong business relation between Saudi Arabia and US.
Background of the study:
From twentieth century, the interaction between East and West was a matter of high consideration. The Second World War was one of the most important reasons for rendering the economic dilemmas between Middle East and USA. USA had already spread their dominant wings in the neighbor regions of East and Middle East. In order to promote the democratic ideology in the own countries as well as in the countries of Middle East, US intended to applied authoritarian theory at that time. Authoritarian theory ensures that states of a particular country should follow the verdict and authority of government rather than taking any kind of individual decision-making. The rules and regulation of the authority is the ultimate; states do not have the right for providing any notion or ideology regarding the country progress. USA has already created a predominant recognition at the then period due to its political and economical stability. Therefore, the implementation of authoritarian theory in the various countries of Middle East rendered immense political and psychological instability among the inhabitants of Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran. At the time of twentieth century, US acquired the position of superior foreign power at the time of Suez Canal Crisis in the year 1956. In the article “Saudi Arabia and Iran: Power and Rivalry in the Middle East published by Simon Mabon”, the author has stated “ On 11 October 2011, Eric Holder, the US Attorney General, accused Iran of attempting to assassinate the Saudi Arabian ambassador to the United States”. In Latin America, the authoritarian government had been notice to implement authoritarian theory due to several reasons. Firstly, with the authoritarian ideology, Government would be able to impose their decision on the inhabitants of Latin America in such a way that inhabitants tend to follow the decision-making process of government. Implementing this particular ideology is possessed with some of its major advantages. In a somewhat brazen attempt, the scheme involved an Iranian-American used-car salesman with alleged family ties to senior military personnel in Iran, hiring assassins from a Mexican drug cartel at a cost of $1.5 million,” stated Simon.
The inhabitants of entire country have to follow one particular ideology. Consequently, the government is able to maintain a distinct culture and discipline within the whole country.
At the same time, some of the major disadvantages of implementing authoritarian theory are undeniable as well. After implementing this particular theory, people lose their opportunity to express their democratic concept about the progress of country and their opportunity. As a result, people feel themselves dominated and de-motivated due to this. It is clear and evident that US has exposed high ability for maintaining the superior and initiate affairs in order to communicate with the authoritarian government. It is undeniable that US at the time of Second World War gave immense support and co-operation to Saudi Arabia economically. As a result, this particular country had to accept the democratic ideology of US. As per the point of view of Mabon “ The heterogeneous theory of IR suggests that the behavior of a state is determined by various factors ranging from security concerns to state institutions, from identity to the construction of the international system”.
Significance of the relation between US and Middle East:
US National security provides high priority in order to maintain stability in the regions of Middle East. The internal dilemma and conflict between Saudi Arab and Iran is the primary cause of misbalance in the political and economical framework. As a result, the inhabitants have to suffer highly due to the extreme political dilemmas within the countries. The interpersonal communications between two individuals are getting affected day-by-day. One particular individual has to face innumerable difficulties for getting any co-operation from others. On the other, the economic stability of the individuals is getting hampered immensely due to the internal conflict between two countries. The regional business organizations are getting hampered due to the inter personal conflict of Saudi Arab and Iran. Fawaz Gerges in the article ‘Saudi Arabia in the New Middle East, Council on the Foreign Relation’ stated, “It is worth capturing the heartbeat of this revolutionary moment. Bread, freedom, social justice and human dignity were the rallying cries that echoed from mayadeen al-tahrir in Tunisi, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain, Syria and elsewhere.” The business experts had to face immense challenges for maintaining profit making planning. In this kind of situation, some of the major issues raised such as unemployment, lack of proper opportunity, lack of scope for maintaining proper education, sustainability development problem. On the other hand, due to this internal conflict, the neighbor countries as well show their reluctance for maintaining an effective communication and business relation. For an example, Saudi Arabia by involving in religious conflict with Iran had face immense difficulties to expand their business process to the neighbor countries such as Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Israel, Saudi Arabia. Consequently, Saudi Arabia had to face two major impacts such as economic instability and unemployment.
Unemployment was one of the major issues faced by the inhabitants of Saudi Arabia at that particular period. Most of the organizations had to face disastrous consequence for running their business organization successfully. Millions of Arabs revolted against repression, defying fear and bullets and daring to call an effective citizenship and more representative egalitarian political and economic system,” opined by Gerges. The internal sources of a particular business organization did not allow paying the employees’ remuneration. As a result, the employees had to face a drastic situation in order to lead their day-to-day life. Economic instability is effect of unemployment. Employees after losing their security of job, failed to support their family for leading a regular lifestyle. As a result, the inhabitants had to face economic instability. At that very crucial period, US stretched their hands in order to support Saudi Arabia so that the inhabitants of Saudi Arabia can get the scope for leading normal life. The political conflict and religious conflict with Iran brought an opportunity for capturing Saudi Arabia for US. Al-Rasheed in the article Saudi Internal Dilemmas and Regional Responses to the Arab Uprisings stated in an occasion “The new Middle East is one of the most comprehensive zones that highlighted the crisis of political authority, the failure of economic development, and the new genres of mobilization and activism, especially communication technology in youth’s movements”.
Brief overviews of the intervention of America:
Up to 2012, Saudi Arabia held the position of second biggest oil reserves. One of the primary reasons for US to interfere for rendering the political and economical stability of Middle East countries was to keep the flow of natural gas in USA. Saudi Arabia being the second largest oil reserve could help USA immensely by supplying sufficient oil and natural gas. Therefore, the purpose was very much neat and clear. Middle East countries needed co-operation of US in order to get their political and economic stability back. Their glory and image of the business organization was going to be demolished. The inhabitants had to suffer ruthlessly after the destruction of the business organization due to these political dilemmas. In this kind of situation, Saudi Arabia needed an intense help of US both economically and psychologically. On the other hand, US considered that this proposal would become fruitful for them as well. If they can stretch their hands towards Saudi Arabia, US would not have to struggle for getting sufficient natural gas supply. Therefore, their temporary crisis would be reduced due to this. Therefore, US accepted the proposal of Saudi Arab.
However, US government had to face major issues in order to maintain the political stabilities within the countries of Middle East. Middle East countries were possessed with diverse religious views. Especially the religious conflict between Iraq and Iran had raised vigorously at that time. As a result, US have struggled immensely for rendering peace and happiness on the mind of the people of these two countries. Consequently, US was able to import oil and natural gas from the Middle East countries. In the year 1944, an agreement had been passed between US government and Britain. As per this agreement, it had been decided that, US would not be applicable to import oil and natural gas from every countries of Middle East. The economic growth of Middle East countries is highly dependent on oil and natural gas business and policies. Therefore, exporting is the key process of becoming economically strong for Iraq, Iran and Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the primary purpose of US for importing natural gas from Saudi Arabia was depending on two key factors. Firstly, US intended to reduce the economic strength of Middle East countries. If they become strong economically, their strength and power would be raised. Thus, US’s implemented authoritarian ideology would be ignored strictly. In this kind of situation, US never wanted to make Middle East countries stronger. By making an agreement in limited money, US imported the oil and natural gas resources from Saudi Arabia.
On the other hand, US wanted to maintain a balance in supply and demand in oil and natural gas resources. In order to secure future of the nation, US had followed this particular strategy for making their economy stronger by maintaining an image to the neighbor countries as well. This particular strategy and policy had strictly been followed by America. It is notable that 40% of the oil resources are available in Saudi Arabia. That was the primary reason of targeting Saudi Arabia for US. On the other hand, the effective interpersonal communication between America and Saudi Arabia is one of the major causes of more political violence among other countries. Following US, the other neighbor countries as well are demanding to import oil and natural gas from Saudi Arabia. As a result, Saudi Arabia had to face numerous barriers to maintain a balance with other countries as well. On one hand, Saudi Arabia is unable to refuse the proposal of US, on the other hand, their natural resources are getting hampered due to the extreme flow of importation.
Democracy and human rights strategy of Saudi Arabia:
After failing in terrorizing 6 million Yemenis, Saudi Arabians decided to get reverted in the original and equally doomed plan. Colonizing Yemenis was nothing new off Saudi Arabia. In order to circulate the human rights among the inhabitants, the government decided to Divide Yemen into two states by separating south and north categorically. Country with limited inhabitants is able to maintain internal discipline and peace. People do not become influenced with the changing strategies and policies of Government. People in general get more opportunities to interact with the government rules and policies. Direct interaction renders a mutual understanding between government and public. Recently the edicts’ issuer of state Dar Al-lfta stated in an occasion “the game carried symbols of ‘deviant’ religious and organizations, such as international Zionism and Israel Christian Crosses freemasonry and symbols from Japan’s native Shinto religion.”
Despite the plenty of natural wealth, Saudi Arabia has remained as one of the most under developed country. The people of this particular country fail to draw an image and recognition in front of the inhabitants of others. One off the primary reasons of this underdevelopment in the mind of Saudi Arabian people is imposed decision. The internal policy of Saudi Arabian states are highly influenced by other countries especially US. As a result, states intend to impose their decision on the local people. In this situation, the inhabitants get least opportunities to share their own point of view regarding any kind of issue.
However, in order to overcome the political pressure coming from US government, the country has decided to look into the internal structural matter seriously. The government has made a serious concern on some of the major factors. These include prohibition of gender segregation, division within the internal society by rendering the acrobatic entertainments. These are the primary ways of making an effective promotion on democracy and human rights on behalf of Saudi Arabian Governments.
At the time of political dilemmas, Middle East countries had to face innumerable sufferings in order to maintain their education properly. Unemployment raised so violent at that time, people failed to afford fees for education. Religious discrepancy came within the institutions. Teachers had to suffer immensely in order to follow a particular ideology at that specific time. In this kind of situation, US turned up to fulfill their diplomatic theories. They started to spread authoritarian theory at that time. In returns, Middle East countries received political and economical co-operation from US.
The purposes of taking a collaborative decision with US for Middle East were as follows:
- To critically understand political history and interest of US foreign policy that surrounds the oil reserves and political allies in order to determine the result of an overall scenario on the political structure of US
- To evaluate the effects of the newly identified militarisation policy that is designed by the US
- To identify the primary trends that is attached with the international policymaking process for considering the particular conditions of Gulf region.
- To forecast the future agenda of international affairs based on economic and political spheres between Middle East and USA
As already stated the economic strategy of Middle East countries especially Saudi Arab were inseparably related to US. At this particular time, Saudi Arabia needed immense help and co-operation from US. Due to the political as well as religious conflict, Saudi Arab had face intense economical dilemmas. The inhabitants faced troubles for leading their day-to-day life. In this kind of situation, Saudi Arabian government decided to make a negotiable contract with US In order to maintain their economic stability. US needed the resource of oil and natural gas for maintaining the availability of supply within the country. On the other hand, Saudi Arabia considered that exporting oil and natural gas is the only way to get their economic stability back.
Exportation oil and natural gas is the most effective ways of earning money for Middle East countries. US were very much aware of the limitation of Saudi Arabia. Therefore, at the time of political conflict and dilemmas, US intended to make the best utilization of that time. By offering a sufficient amount of money, US made a negotiation with Saudi Arabia. The negotiation between US and Saudi Arabia rendered major difficulties for other countries. Saudi Arabia after making a deal with US for exporting their oil and natural gas was not allowed to make business with any other countries. As a result, the neighbors that wanted to import natural gas from Saudi Arabia were deprived of the society. In this kind of situation, Saudi Arabia had to compromise immensely economically being restricted with the terms and conditions of US. In addition, Saudi Arabia being one of the most popular countries amidst the Middle East was primarily targeted for maintaining diplomatic relation.
The foreign development policies of US are primarily developed to be accessed with the oil production companies. That was the primary reason of involving Saudi Arabia for importing sufficient among of oil and natural gas. If the oil production companies can get the supply of oil in low price, their level of profit would be increased automatically. That was one of the major ways of enhancing the economic stability of US. The economic strategy of US was completely diplomatic. US government had taken a diplomatic decision at the time of forming economical strategy. Dan smith in the State of Middle East pointed out in an occasion “Because of oil, what transpires there can have profound economic impact and its intervention of outside powers and because of the export of violence to other areas.”
From the early nineteenth century, USA started to maintain an effective international relation throughout the World. Middle East countries were the primary target. US government at that particular period noticed that petroleum production companies are one of the major sources for earning high level of economic status. In order to gain satisfactory revenue, US government considered to make a target on Saudi Arab. Only business deal in terms of money would never be effective for Saudi Arab. In this situation, US government decided that they would have to send the approach of standing beside Saudi Arabian government. In return, US need the import facility of oil and natural gas.
Saudi Arabia at that particular time had faced immense difficulties to maintain peaceful environment within the country. The religious conflict between Iran and Saudi Arabia had become a matter of serious concern for other countries as well. The inhabitants of Middle East had to suffer immensely in order to deal lead their daily lifestyle. US proposed to expand their hand by providing sufficient economic co-operation to Saudi Arab. Apparently, the proposal thrown by US seemed to be effective for economic benefits of Saudi Arab. The truth however is just the opposite. This particular country loses the power to export their natural resource to other nation. As a result, they have to face a massive loss in the entire process of business.
After making an in-depth analysis about the strategies of US, it can be recommended that diplomatic strategy is one of the major ways for raising the head in the realm of dwindling political sphere. US chose the right path of expanding their widespread wings throughout different nations of Middle East. One particular thing that should have a major concern for US was economical strategy. In order to earn oil and natural gas from Saudi Arabia, US had to involve in many disputes at that time. Britain strongly prohibited US to import oil from every nation of Middle East. In order to get Saudi Arabia within control, US had to lose the reliability factors of Britain. Therefore, this particular nation at that time cannot avoid the dispute with the powerful country like Britain.
At the same time, it is undeniable that US had to suffer immensely in order to maintain a political balance between Iran and Saudi Arabia. People of US had to suffer desperately due to the unexpected pressures coming from various corners of the Worlds. However, Saudi Arabia should never compromise the process of business even for US. They should export natural gas in different countries in order to generate a craze in other countries as well. Otherwise, people would not get to know the actual value of Saudi Arabia. The key aim of this particular study is developing an assumption on the future of economic as well as political affairs between Middle East and the United States of America. The secondary purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical foundation for the readers for historical and contemporary consequences of the militarisation and authoritarian policy designed by international affairs of US.
This particular study has provided an in-depth analysis about the US intervention and the effect of foreign development plans policies. It is clear and evident that overcoming the identified goals needs to conduct an intense critical review regarding the history of political interests of US that is firmly related with the oil reserves. As per the experts’ reviews, involving the necessary trends of policymaking should need to be taken into consideration at the time of analysis and examination. US being an integral part of its foreign policy have tried to transform its own political and economic institution directly in an overnight based in Iraq. As a result, these particular efforts were made to contrast the ordinary principles. The goal was to foster gradually the advancement of the overarching values and principles in the different regions. As part of the process, various perspectives of the promotion of democracy were revealed. The entire process has ensured the development of political allies between US and other states other Middle East countries in 1991. Therefore, the particular historical facts must need to be evaluated properly to satisfy the defined aim of the study. The primary objective of this particular study is to understand the political interests of Us foreign development policy around the oil reserves.
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