Information Systems Analysis And Design Term Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Information Systems Analysis and Design Term3.

Answer:

Introduction

The main aim of this report is to develop an automated Student Management System (SMS) for Australian Institute of Technology (AIT). The existing system in the institute is operated manually using several staffs and agents. However, due to growing number of students and increasing complexity in the management system, a new automated system is necessary that will provide much more accurate and efficient management system. Moreover, this new system can significantly reduce the workload on the available staffs and these staffs can concentrate more on the verifications of applicant authenticity as well as monitoring the progress of the trainees.

The main objectives of the project are as follows.

  • To analyze the existing manually operated system at the institution
  • To analyze the requirements for the new automated system for the institution
  • To conduct system requirements analysis for the new system that can be implemented with significant cost benefit
  • To identify possible risks with the new system
  • To prepare a project schedule
  • To conduct investigation on system investigation requirement

Approach to Systems Development

Use of technology has become an integral part of development of any sector – banking, commerce, education, transport and others. With further development of technology, more and more automated systems are being developed that are implemented in all sectors for reducing manual workload as well as manual errors. Australia is one of the leading countries in the development of modern information system and its implementation in various sectors. However, the education system of Australia is yet to receive maximum benefits from information systems as they have not been implemented on a large scale yet. The education of Australia can be developed by a large margin with the proper implementation of information system. This information system is mainly based automating various operations like management of student records, operations related to the basic study lessons like online video lectures, online examinations and others. Currently, a major part of the Australian education system including the institute mentioned in the case study is managed manually by staffs and agents. The approach suggested is to install computers and subscribe to cloud computing servers. Additionally, big data warehouses can be efficiently used to store and manage all the data and information.

The main justification for this approach is that if the student data are managed and operated manually, errors will start occurring once the number of students increases every year. Moreover, manual handling also takes up huge amount of time. On the other hand, automated systems can manage and store all the data efficiently without errors and within a very small amount of time.

Systems Requirements

The primary functional requirements for the system in the case study are discussed below.

Latest Technical Hardwares – Implementation of information system requires availability of suitable hardware systems. For the latest information system, the hardwares must be upgraded to the latest technical configurations. These hardwares are used for entering and reading data into the main server. Moreover, the associated agents can monitor the data and information stored and operated in the server using the hardware (computer monitor).

Softwares – Information system is implemented with the help of several softwares. The information system for the case study includes cloud server, big data and automated data management system. Suitable softwares are to be used in order to develop the big data server as well as the automated data management system.

Cyber Security Softwares – These are to be used in order to protect the computers as well as the server from external security attacks. Cloud servers are very vulnerable to external security threats and require strong security systems. These cyber security threats have the capacity to erase or steal all the data stored in the server as well as inject malwares into the system.

The non-functional requirements for the system are as follows.

Staff Training – As a new information system is suggested, special training sessions are to be conducted so that the staffs and agents learn how to use and manage the information system. A small manual mistake can cause severe errors in the system.

Technical Experts – They are needed in order to install the suitable information system in the institution.

Project Cost Benefit Analysis

Any project that is conducted is based on the possible scale of cost benefit. Hence, before initiation of a project, conduction of a project cost benefit analysis is necessary. If there is no possible cost benefit, the project should not be executed at all. Moreover, the budgeting of the project also depends on the cost benefit of the project. Any organization that is planning to execute a project should look for a significant scale of cost benefit so that they can recover and profit from the amount that has been spent throughout the course of the project. In the excel spreadsheet, a cost benefit analysis for the proposed project for AIT has been estimated and calculated based on the available funds and resource costs.

Tangible Benefits

Type

In $

Reduction of Cost

$ 30,000.00

Error Reduction

$ 50,000.00

Increase of Cost Flexibility

$ 20,000.00

Increase in Speed of Activity

$ 15,000.00

Planning and Control Upgrade

$ 10,000.00

Others

$ -

Total Tangible Benefits

$ 125,000.00

Tangible One-Time Costs

Type

In $

Hardware Costs

$ 50,000.00

Software Costs (Basic and Security)

$ 60,000.00

Wages and Payments

$ 15,000.00

Others

$ 5,000.00

Total Tangible One-Time Costs

$ 130,000.00

Tangible Recurring Costs

Category

In $

Maintenance of Software Applications

$ 500.00

Data Storage Costs (Cloud and Big Data)

$ 1,000.00

Communication System Costs

$ 2,500.00

Lease line costs for new hardware and software

$ -

Supply Cost

$ 1,500.00

Others

$ -

Total Tangible Recurring Costs

$ 5,500.00

Table 1: Cost Benefit Analysis Table

(Source: Created by Author)

Project Schedule

Work Breakdown Structure
The work breakdown structure for the project schedule is as follows.

Task No.

Milestone

No. of Days

1.0

Project Initiation Phase

27

1.1

Analysis of System Requirements

5

1.2

Appointment of Technical Experts

5

1.3

Scheduling of Project

2

1.4

Procurement of Resources

15

2.0

Project Execution Phase

40

2.1

Installation of Hardwares

10

2.2

Installation of Softwares

10

2.3

Installation of Security Systems

10

2.4

Installation of Big Data Warehouse

10

3.0

Project Closing Phase

35

3.1

System Testing

5

3.2

Risk Mitigation

15

3.3

Staff Training

15

Project Scheduling

Task Name

Duration

Start

Finish

Predecessors

Implementation of Information System for AIT

75 days

Mon 19-12-16

Fri 31-03-17

Project Initiation Phase

25 days

Mon 19-12-16

Fri 20-01-17

Analysis of System Requirements

5 days

Mon 19-12-16

Fri 23-12-16

Appointment of Technical Experts

5 days

Mon 26-12-16

Fri 30-12-16

2

Scheduling of Project

2 days

Mon 02-01-17

Tue 03-01-17

2,3

Procurement of Resources

15 days

Mon 02-01-17

Fri 20-01-17

3

Project Execution Phase

30 days

Mon 23-01-17

Fri 03-03-17

Installation of Hardwares

10 days

Mon 23-01-17

Fri 03-02-17

5

Installation of Softwares

10 days

Mon 06-02-17

Fri 17-02-17

7

Installation of Security Systems

10 days

Mon 06-02-17

Fri 17-02-17

5,7

Installation of Big Data Warehouse

10 days

Mon 20-02-17

Fri 03-03-17

8

Project Closing Phase

20 days

Mon 06-03-17

Fri 31-03-17

System Testing

5 days

Mon 06-03-17

Fri 10-03-17

7,8,9,10

Risk Mitigation

15 days

Mon 13-03-17

Fri 31-03-17

12

Staff Training

15 days

Mon 06-03-17

Fri 24-03-17

7,8,9,10

Gantt chart

FIGURE 1: Gantt Chart

(Source: Created by Author)

The work breakdown structure shows the milestones that are to be achieved during the course of the project. On the other hand, the Gantt chart provides a rough schedule that is to be followed while executing the project.

The project schedule is more or less reasonable given the scale of the project and the other factors associated with it. However, the project preparation phase should take a bit longer as this involves procurement of budget and allocation, procurement of resources and other technical factors.

System Information Requirement Investigation Techniques

Stakeholders of the Project

Execution of any project requires a number of stakeholders that are involved in various stages and activities of a project. The list of stakeholders for this project and their duties are as follows.

Stakeholder Designation

Role

Project Manager

To prepare project plan and schedule, manage the project according to his proposed plan

Sponsor (Here, sponsor is the same person as project manager i.e. the owner of the institution)

To provide funds for the project

Technical Experts

To analyse system requirements, install the information system in the institution and test the system after installation

Procurement Manager

To procure resources required for the installation of the information system

Staffs

To control and maintain the information system after implementation and activation

Investigation Techniques

There are several investigation techniques for information systems. Of them, the most important three are as follows.

Interviews – This method can be used to analyse the work area as well as problems faced by a particular staff individually.

Justification - This method can give a detailed idea of the working of the available system based on individual views.

Observation of System in Operation – This is another efficient method for investigation that involves regular observation of the working of the system.

Justification - The owner of the institution has a particular set of requirements and he can monitor the system operation regularly for making further changes.

Questionnaires – In this method, the owner has to enlist a set of choices for making changes in the system. The questionnaires are to be sent to the employees so that they can choose their own preferences from the choice set.

Justification - This method gives the owner a more clearer idea regarding the change he proposes.

All these three methods can be successful in identifying the faults or loopholes in the existing system. The first and third method provides views of employees while the second one is mainly based on the owner’s ideas.

Conclusions Reflections and

In this report, an overall idea has been given for the development of information system in AIT. The existing system in the institute is operated manually using several staffs and agents. The problem arises because to growing number of students and increasing complexity in the management system. A new automated system is suggested that is necessary to provide much more accurate and efficient management system. Moreover, this new system can significantly reduce the workload on the available staffs and these staffs can concentrate more on the verifications of applicant authenticity as well as monitoring the progress of the trainees.

From this report, while conducting an investigation for proposing the system for the case study, I have personally learnt a lot about the existing and developing information systems that are widely used in different sectors. Moreover, I have learnt to prepare project plans using Gantt charts and Work Breakdown Structures that will help me in my professional career in the future.

References

Baskerville, R.L. and Wood-Harper, A.T., 2016. A critical perspective on action research as a method for information systems research. In Enacting Research Methods in Information Systems: Volume 2 (pp. 169-190). Springer International Publishing.

Gregory, R.W., Beck, R. and Keil, M., 2013. Control Balancing in Information Systems Development Offshoring Projects. Mis Quarterly, 37(4), pp.1211-1232.

Rivera, W.M., Qamar, M.K. and Mwandemere, H.K., 2016. Enhancing coordination among akis/rd actors: an analytical and comparative review of country studies on agricultural knowledge and information systems for rural development (akis/rd).

Sarker, S., Xiao, X. and Beaulieu, T., 2013. Guest editorial: qualitative studies in information systems: a critical review and some guiding principles. MIS Quarterly, 37(4), pp.iii-xviii.

Stair, R. and Reynolds, G., 2013. Principles of information systems. Cengage Learning.

Ward, J. and Peppard, J., 2016. The Strategic Management of Information Systems: Building a Digital Strategy. John Wiley & Sons.

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