The aim of this report is to conduct a detailed literature survey on Internet of Things (IOT) and the security related issues and the available solutions. The first section contains the published report that has been published in a blog for discussion of the issue to generate better idea upon the subject. The section has been detailed in four subsections for understanding the challenges, present problems, technologies and vague areas. In the next section, the discussions of the blog have been summarized. In the subsequent section, the issues that have been important and discussed has been addressed. The next section deals with the impact of the issue in the real world and finally the reflection has been included to discuss the learning outcomes and results.
Internet of Things (IOT)
IOT is the interconnection of various devices which could perform a variety of tasks ranging from mobile PDAs to Objects such as machines. These devices could be interconnected with the help of internet and doesn’t need any human interference for the transaction of data (Hwang Dongarra & Fox, 2013). The evolution of IOT has been helped by the advanced communication media like wireless, MEMS (Micro Electronic Mechanical Systems) the internet and information technology.
The major development that has been in IOT are in the area of automotive, smart homes, healthcare manufacturing, industrial internet, etc. (Internet of Things Applications across Industries, 2016). So it can be understood that such wide applications need a better security measure for its upkeep and maintenance. For analysis IOT various papers have been reviewed and discussed in detail according to the following parameters.
Challenges and the issues
The IOT since being a shared service has a lot of challenges that has to be resolved. The challenges can be grouped into the following sections for ease of understanding:
Infrastructure and Standards: The Internet is the conglomeration of various hardware, software, embedded systems and devices that communicate with each other. Since the communication is done across such variety of devices hence, a common standard has to be maintained for communication between the devices (Usman et al... 2014). Hence to ensure a better connectivity between the devices, Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) has been formed (Industrial Internet Consortium, 2016).
Access and control: The data that are transmitted over the internet has to be received by a controller for monitoring and controlling the device. Hence it is extremely important that the relevant data reaches the target personnel to ensure proper access security (Sanchez Lopez & Skarmeta, 2013). Since the device is connected to the internet, maintain ownership of data is very difficult.
Security: IOT is aimed to digitize the whole physical world into digital and hence this hybridization will need the highest security. Every day we come across hacking news that hamper the business processes and IOT with its vast area of implementation will become a soft target for the hackers (Yousuf et al., 2015).
The relevant Technologies
The driving factors are better processors or computers, advanced communication models and advanced and accurate sensors (Baccell et al., 2015). These devices are capable of making any system smart and making it available over the internet for controlling and monitoring. IOT will help in the creation of smart environments and will further help in implementing integrated ecosystems that will be capable of interacting with each other without the need of human intervention and will help in making the system more eco-friendly, energy is conscious, optimized thus helping in reduction of carbon footprint and make the present system more versatile. IOT will also increase the trust between the systems through increased security connectivity and will help in enhancement of privacy through better standardization (Whitmore Agarwal & Da Xu, 2015).
Application of the technologies
The increasing popularity of IOT and smart devices the need for security has become paramount. In his paper, Shah et al. (2014) discuss securing the ‘Access Control System.' The paper emphasizes the use wireless technology, which makes the system more clutter free and use of biometrics and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) cards for making the system more secure. Further, the inputs are fed into a computer for keeping a tab on movements and helps in understanding the pattern of the usage (Da-Xu He & Li, 2014). The system was made smart to avoid breaking into homes or secured places. The system is capable of raising alarm whenever it recognizes the threat. Similar applications like securing any area, lockers can be implemented with similar infrastructure. Other applications like the integration of smart grid, grid isolation, health monitoring and wearable are the various areas where IOT can be easily implemented, and the data can be monitored to generate useful data (Vermesan & Friess, 2014). As mentioned above integrated systems like IOT in industry, future smart factories, smart objects and applications due to better connectivity and data sharing will be common in future.
The various vague areas that can be identified from the six papers that had been selected for the paper are many they are, the cost of internet that would be used for communication, the wireless communication band that can be used for communication, the range of Internet or the control range, fault analysis, the rate of data transfer between the server and the remote device, the associated maintenance for remote devices and updates required over time to keep the system secure (Baccelli et al.,2015).
Various solutions have been provided to cope up with the different vague areas in the selected papers, but none of them are complete and needs more elaboration for a more secure system. The above mentioned vague areas can be classified into three modules. They can be sought as answers to three questions namely, what is the cost of implementation? How are the systems communicating with each other?. What are the security measures? and how much is the longevity of such system?
Summary of the discussions in the forum
The IOT got into mainstream technology with the advent of the mobile technology. The smart devices have entered into general lives of people through GPS and advanced sensors. The predicted growth of IOT is unprecedented as the devices that are being used in human life are unending. The primary concerns that were raised in the discussion are:
Security: The embedded systems are designed to use the least amount of energy for being energy efficient. Hence these systems are given just the amount of intelligence that is required for functioning and could be termed as headless as the memory used in case of the systems are pretty less, and advanced security measures can’t be installed in such a small space. These systems are easy to crack open and are susceptible to hacking, as the authentication protocols remain same over the time. The variety of applications that has been implemented at different places poses different threats, e.g. PLCs that are integrated into to factory system are not capable of differentiating between human and nonhuman interference and is susceptible to cracking.
Privacy: The IOT means every device is connected to each other hence every move that a human being makes is monitored through the devices. These devices can talk with each other and make the information available over the internet which can be accessed by anyone with minimal computer knowledge. The selective hacking makes the scenario more grievous as every step can be monitored and the previous steps can be modeled to generated a habitual model of a human being through which the identity of the person can be copied thus creating danger for the individual. The smart TVs have already been blamed for collecting the data about viewing habits thus creating a consumerized version of TV and monetizing on the available data.
Interoperability: The name IOT itself implies that the devices should be able to talk to each other. For this function, the interoperability is the prime factor. For interoperability, the devices have to be built around some standards for communication that make the system programmable, communicable and operable across different devices. The devices should be made to communicate and understand each other regardless of their operating systems, manufacturer, version, etc. The Internet is such common platform for data exchange with the help of IPV4 and IPV6 protocol, hence making it ideal for such devices (Shang et al., 2016).
Rights: The National Fraud Intelligence Bureau have published that 70% of the crimes that happen in the present scenario involve cyber element which was around 40% about five years ago. With more and more IOT around humans, the rate will be obvious to rise above the present level. Now the miscreants can access central heating or cooling system of a tower through a mobile and the criminals are feeling proud of such attacks. Once into the system the data of the users are not safe and can land into hands of miscreants (Friess, 2013). Hence IOT should be termed as a disruptive technology which seriously reduces the system security and hampers the rights of consumers and users.
Development: IOT has become the driving trend in major developing countries and has been predicted to contribute around 40% of the IOT. The connectivity between the economies and the various advantages of real time communication is driving the trend. The IOT is capable of driving any economy to the pinnacle and hence the organizations and the companies are using it in every aspect of their production line thus helping them to produce better, which has increased the revenue of the system with reduced workforce and latency (Holler et al., 2014).
Impact of discussion on IOT
The IOT which had been termed as a disruptive technology in various contexts should be dealt with carefully, and necessary steps should be taken before jumping into it. Through discussion and the report it can be understood that IOT has almost become a part of life due to the wide usage of mobile technology, but there still exist many more devices that can be digitized and connected to generate more data. The discussion also suggests that the security threats that IOT possess is very real and should not be taken lightly. Not paying proper heed to the various security measures to ensure privacy and security will lead to disasters, which will be very hard to contain. The peer conversation also helps to chalk out the importance of IOT and its impact on the economy. IOT has helped the organizations around the world to cash the advantages of connectivity and will continue to do so but the advances should be in steps as the leaps, in this case, could lead to devastation.
Through this article, I have learned the importance of IOT in modern life. The IOT can be understood as the usage of internet by the devices which are made intelligent with modern computers. IOT has a huge potential to change the life of us, humans, and create the interconnected Atlantis of our dream. But it should always be kept in mind that with great technologies come greater threats to the individuality of a person. Hacking has been associated with the advent of the computer, and its increasing trend shows that the technology is acting as a catalyst to such acts. I have also understood that security should be our primary concern, and the technology should take the backseat at this moment.
In the above article various factors related to IOT had been discussed and presented for a better understanding of the concepts of IOT systems. The understanding of the topic had been developed with the help of identification of challenges, problems, related technologies and the vague areas in the system. Further valuable data had been generated through publishing the article in a blog and facilitating discussion on the topic. The valuable discussions had been summarized and in the impact of the discussion had been analyzed and finally reflected to understand the tricks of the trade.
Baccelli, E., Hahm, O., Petersen, H., & Schleiser, K. (2015). RIOT and the Evolution of IoT Operating Systems and Applications. ERCIM News,2015(101).
Da Xu, L., He, W., & Li, S. (2014). Internet of things in industries: A survey.IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 10(4), 2233-2243.
Friess, P. (2013). Internet of things: converging technologies for smart environments and integrated ecosystems. River Publishers.
Holler, J., Tsiatsis, V., Mulligan, C., Avesand, S., Karnouskos, S., & Boyle, D. (2014). From Machine-to-machine to the Internet of Things: Introduction to a New Age of Intelligence. Academic Press.
Hwang, K., Dongarra, J., & Fox, G. C. (2013). Distributed and cloud computing: from parallel processing to the internet of things. Morgan Kaufmann.
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