Engineers design materials, systems, and structures which having in mind the restrictions practically imposed by regulation, cost, and safety. The education period for one who wishes to be an engineer is four years for bachelor’s degree. The work of an engineer forms a connection between applications to human needs and scientific discoveries in the field of engineering.
Designing: An engineer should develop a new technology of a given solution. During the process of engineering design, the work of an engineer may include the definition of the problem, research, analyzing solution to the problem, and decision making. The engineer must categorize the different choices of design that he has come up with and decide on which on is the best design basing his decision on merits of a particular design or cost of the design (Bos, 2004 p. 154).
Analysis: The engineers should apply the techniques of analysis in engineering that is used for production, maintenance, and testing. There are some fields of engineers that are based in the factory to supervise the factory’s production, failure of systems, and testing the output of the factory. The engineer also can estimate the production duration and time of completion of the output of the factory. Engineering analysis involves the use of principles of scientific analysis and processes to disclose the state and properties of the system being studied. The analysis can also involve establishing failure in the operations and specifications of the components that are used in operation. Many engineers will prefer to use computer programs in production and analyze of a design for easy monitoring and control of a process (Bos, 2004 p. 187).
Specification and Management: Engineering involves the specialization in one or many disciplines in engineering. Specialization in engineering enables an engineer to concentrate in a particular area of specialization and manage the field effectively. For example in Civil Engineering, there are subdivisions such as material engineering, transportation engineering, and structural engineering. The following are some of the branches of engineering and their applications:
Aerospace Engineering; Focuses on the development of spacecraft and aircraft. They produce robotics and aircraft.
Architectural engineering and Building Engineering; Focuses on construction and building of structures such as bridges, houses, and roads
Biomedical Engineering; Focuses on closing the gap between medicine and engineering so as to improve various healthcare treatment. This group of engineers deals with tissue growth, medical devices, prostheses, and safety mechanisms.
Chemical Engineering; Focuses on the manufacture of chemicals and production processes of the chemicals. They deal with chemicals, petroleum, raw materials, and medicines.
Civil Engineering; Focuses on the construction of large structures and systems. They deal with the construction of buildings, dams, roads, and bridges.
Computer Engineering; Focuses on the development and design of computer software systems and hardware system. They deal with operating systems, microcontrollers, microprocessors, and systems that are embedded.
Electrical Engineers; Focuses on the designing of circuit and electrical systems. They deal with electronic devices and computers.
Industrial Engineering; Focuses on optimization, design, and logistics in production. This field also focuses on services to the components of the system. They deal with manufacturing systems, supply chains, quantity control, and warehousing.
Mechanical Engineering; Focuses on operation and development of systems of energy, transport, and machines. They deal with spacecraft, machines, cars, and generation of power (Beder, 2001 p. 187).
Ensuring safety and welfare of the public and clients: An engineer should ensure that the area under construction is well protected against injuries that can arise as a result of poor construction or failure of the machines. The engineer should ensure that all the safety installation of every equipment and machine are in place.
Professional Ethics: It is very unethical for an engineer to practice in the field in which he is not specialized in. An engineer should not perform any duties that are unlawful or accept bribes for someone who wants favors. It is unethical for an engineer to design substandard systems that may fail after a few operations.
Legal liabilities: Engineers should uphold the requirements of the law and ensure that all the constructions are in the right standard as required by the legal requirements. For electrical engineers, there are electrical standards that should be met regarding the voltage requirement and safety measures for every country.
Quality: Engineers should observe the quality of all the designs they are coming up with. An engineer balances the quality of the product with the cost when designing a component. For civil engineers, the quality of construction is measured by its durability and little maintenance required for a long duration.
Communication: Engineers should practice effective communication between other engineers and the clients they are dealing with. Communication will ensure that engineers get the correct specifications that are required by the client. Engineers should consult among themselves so as to develop quality designs that are standard (Bos, 2004 p. 214).
Importance of employing principles of sustainable development
Sustainable development is the process of moving activities of human to a pattern that can be sustained frequently. It involved balancing the environmental impacts on the development in the field of engineering. Engineers should also focus on the effects a design they are coming up with on the environment. Sustainable development focuses the following areas:
- Natural resources and economic capacity
- Human capital and social expectations
- Techno-economic systems; Represents the skills of human that are deployed so as to sustain the environment. Both of which provide the energy and material resources despite the emissions and waste from engineering sector(Muschett, 2003 p. 147).
Some of the sustainability issues in engineering sector include:
- Rivers and lakes- Civil Engineering
Most of the civil engineers use water from Lakes and Rivers during constructions. Engineers should come up with ways of maintaining the water sources and prevent pollution through channeling the waste back to the water sources.
- Laundry cleaning products- Chemical Engineering
Most chemicals used in the laundry cleaning come from chemical manufacturing. These chemicals can be dangerous when they spill in soil or water sources. When proper waste Management strategies are put in place, the environment will be sustained from pollution.
- Mobile phone and other communication gadgets- Electrical and electronics engineering.
Most communication gadgets cause noise pollution, and therefore there is need on sustaining the environment from the pollution caused by the devices. Noise pollution damages the ear drum of people around a given area (Voigt, 2007 p. 126).
Management of Information and Documentation
Management of information and documentation is a system that deals with tracking, managing, and storing of documents by the use of computer programs so as to reduce the paperwork. The management of information and documentation involve the following components:
Metadata: This is normally stored for every document. Metadata include the date of the document being stored and the identity of the user who is storing the document. The resulting source can be used to locate and track the document when there is the need.
Integration: Many systems of managing information and documentation attempts to integrate the system of document management directly into other applications, so as the user can get the existing document directly from the system of management (O'Connor, 2005 p. 178).
Capture: This step involves accepting and processing image of the paper documentation from printers or scanners. Capture may also involve accepting computer-based based files and electronic documents.
Validation: This is a visual registration system that is used in case of missing signatures, failure in the document, and misspelled a name.
Indexing: Indexing is used to tracks documents that are electronic in nature. This process may be used to keep unique documents that are identified; but it is normally more complex by proving the classification through the metadata of the document or information (Staff, 2006 p. 126).
Storage: Storage of information and documents involves management of the data through the location where they are stored, duration of the storage, and the movement of the document from one location to another. The ease of retrieval of a document from the storage place is very necessary especially when the document or information is required urgently.
Effective communication across a range of contexts
Effective communication involves sharing information between two people where one party is sending information which can easily be understood by the party that is receiving the information.
When one needs to communicate effectively across a range of contexts, the following are some of the key points to be noted:
Know the audience: The speaker should think about the audience that is being targeted in the speech and if they will all fit into the goal intended (Voigt, 2007 p. 219). The audience to be addressed can be categorized as the following:
- Advocate who promotes the goal intended
- Neutral who has no opinion of the goal
- Critic who has a concern about the intended goal
- Blockers who seek to prevent the intended goal
The stage of discussion: The speaker needs to know the knowledge and level of education of the audience that is to be addressed. The education level of the audience will affect the nature of the speed such as the vocabulary of the worlds and the explanation to provide.
Be prepared: The speaker should be fully prepared before going to the stage. Preparation involves taking notes of the key points to be discussed and having proper equipment and tools that are to be used by the speaker.
Evidence and tools to be used during the presentation: The speaker can use different types of tools as evidence to give the audience confidence in the information being provided. The speaker can use projectors to display the information for the audience to follow the speech (Robin Letellier, 2008 p. 179). During the speech delivery, the speaker can employ techniques of speech-delivery;
- Maintaining eye contact with the audience
- Involving the audience in the discussion through asking questions
- Using tonal variations
- Using the body language
The objective of this research is to discuss the roles, responsibilities, and the need to employ principles of sustainable development in the field of engineering. The roles of the engineers in the society are discussed above together with their responsibilities. The essay also composes the documentation of information and effective communication across a range of context.
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Bos Annette The Role of Engineers in the Demand Responsive Approach: A Case Study from South Africa [Book]. - Paris: WEDC, Loughborough University, 2004.
Muschett F. Douglas Principles of Sustainable Development [Book]. - Michigan: CRC Press, 2003.
O'Connor Patrick The New Management of Engineering [Book]. - London : Lulu.com, 2005, 2005.
Robin Letellier Rand Eppich Recording, Documentation and Information Management for the Conservation of Heritage Places [Book]. - California: Routledge, 2008.
Staff British Standards Institute Information and Documentation. Records Management. Concepts and Principles [Book]. - London: B S I Standards, 2006.
Voigt Christina Sustainable Development As a Principle of International Law: Resolving Conflicts Between Climate Measures and WTO Law [Book]. - New York: BRILL, 2007.