Health Care Issues are prevailing every nations of the world. This study emphasizes on “Inequality in access to modern contraception in Nigeria”. The use of the modern conceptive medicines has been unequally divided in Nigeria. This has created several problems for women in the country. The uptake of the contraceptive pills have caused disastrous effect on fertility of women.
This report discusses about the challenges faced in Nigeria related to inequality in modern contraceptive. The Ottawa Charter has been discussed in the report with its implementation of the action area in this case. Data has been collected from the World Health Organization reports.
This report outlines about critical analysis of the implementation of action area of Ottawa Charter in this case. The barriers in addressing this area of concern has been discussed in the report. Tis report focuses on strategies to mitigate these barriers and involvement of stakeholders into this matter.
The Ottawa Charter is an international agreement made by World Health Organization (WHO) for health promotion. Health Promotion is process that enables people for increasing control over and improving the health care services in various health care organization (World Health Organization, 2017). Health promotion focuses on achieving equity on health care. It depicts equality in achieving heath care services for individuals. Health Promotion strategy requires identification of obstacles for securing adoption of health care policies in non-health sectors. In this case, health promotion in Nigeria has been focused by implementing one of the action area of Ottawa Charter. According to the case study, creating supportive environment is the action area that can be used in this case. A supportive environment is required in maintaining the statistical data regarding this case. The condition in the Nigeria has been worse by inequality in use of modern contraceptive.
According to the survey done by WHO in Nigeria, there has been reduction in fertility by one child per woman. This has caused 13% reduction in GDP of the country in 20 years. Studies revealed that 30% to 40% of maternal deaths and 90% of induced abortion has occurred due to inequality in use of contraceptive (Fry & Zask, 2016). Contraceptive use have minimizes the fertility rate and increase in threat of abortion among women in Nigeria. Fertility decline in an area is demographic depended, consequent reduce in poverty, enhancing economic growth and contributing to families and societies. Therefore, by supportive environment, the mentality of the human beings can be changed. Equality in the use of contraceptive for women might enhance. This policy have helped in maintaining the fertility rate in Nigeria.
The supportive environment for use of modern contraceptive by women helps in controlling the rate of abortion and increase the rate of fertility in Nigeria. The family planning has been key option for the couples in the country. Before 1980s, family-planning programs was not a priority in Nigeria (Mendes, Plaza & Wallerstein, 2016). Later on, this program has gained attention with the implementation of various policies by the Nigerian government. The policies include Nigeria’s National Population policy 1988. This policy was revised in 2004. The policy focuses on enhancing the use of modern contraceptives for health goals. The target for policy was to increase the use of contraceptive up to 80% among women (Lee, 2015). The revised policy concludes for a reduction to 75% by 2015. The fertility rate has reduce by 0.6 children per woman every five years and there is a 2% annual increase in proportion of women using contraceptives. Nigeria developed a blueprint for accelerating uptake of family planning with a target of increasing the national contraceptive prevalence rate to 36% by 2018 (Davies et al. 2014).
According to 2013 NHDS, awareness about contraceptives is more and uptake is low. Only 15% of married women are using contraceptive and 10% are using modern family planning techniques. The statistic variables might be relieved by natural and behavioral components, for example, fertility, sexual movement and want for kids. African social orders are genius natalist, trust that kids are blessing from God, and are social and financial ventures; this has negative suggestions on utilization of contraceptives (Stock, Milczarski & Saboga-Nunes, 2016). Couples and women who want more kids are less inclined to utilize contraceptives. Studies have discovered that a reverse relationship exists between quantity of living youngsters and utilization of present day contraceptives (Chen et al. 2016).
A solid relationship has been found between women’s training, particularly finished essential training and passage into auxiliary level, and ripeness decrease. A few examinations have detailed that women’s instruction has a solid positive effect on prophylactic utilize (Gagn?, T., Lapalme, J., & Leroux, 2017). In Nigeria, training has been found to increment prophylactic utilize. Free of socioeconomic factors, information of contraceptives is determinant of prophylactic utilize. Introduction towards mass communications affects family planning arranging through ideation, which has been found to add to watched fertility decline. Proof from various researches uncovers that introduction to broad communications messages advancing family arranging may influence preventative conduct. In Nigeria, utilization of present day contraceptives, the expectation to utilize them, want for less youngsters were observed to be related with introduction to media message about family arranging.
Several steps are required during planning a project. In this, case the use of modern contraceptive among women has been described. The steps that are involved in the planning has been mentioned below:
- Understanding the timeline, resources, budget and contracts needed to implement the interventions
- Identification of stakeholders and ensuring appropriate participation and partnership
- Priorities interventions
- Phase in program’s implementation.
For completing a project plan:
- Prioritize interventions by ability for providing possible gain given the cost and available resources
- Preparing a budget
- Constructing a project implementation plan
- Arranging contracts for delivery of services and agreements on collaborative action
- Establishing a monitoring system.
There are various challenges in implementation of equality in the use of modern contraceptive. These challenges are described below:
Lack in Awareness
There is a lack in the Nigerian people regarding the use of the contraceptive for women. The education system of the country is bad that have caused low literacy rate in the country. Therefore, there is an inequality in using the modern contraceptive among women. Due to inequality, the fertility rate of the country has been continuously decreasing by years (Eckermann, 2017). The consequences of the abnormal use of contraceptive in the society has been worse among the women. The health of women has been continuously degrading. Therefore, there is requirement of awareness among the people of Nigeria.
Lack in policy
The policy against these misconduct activities in the country has not been yet implemented properly. This have caused imbalance in the reproduction rate of the country. The improper use of contraceptive have caused different problems (Sarmiento & Sarmiento, 2017). The government of Nigeria has not concerned about this problem. There is no strict policy made by the government against the inequality in the use of the modern contraceptive.
In Nigeria, most of the married women plan their pregnancies without the use of the modern contraceptive. They stop child bearing without using the modern contraceptive. This has affected the reproduction rate in the country. Many women are having their child before 18 years of age, which is detrimental for both girl and child (Kickbusch & Nutbeam, 2017). This causes high risk in the life of the girl. The use of the modern contraceptive can help them in this situation. However, they are not using the modern contraceptive.
The Ottawa Charter has been an important part of the history in the field of health promotion among people. The ideas associated with the application of the Ottawa Charter has been properly magnified in the first part. The post colonialism gives a framework that depicts destabilized dominant Western discourse. The feature of post-colonial theory is to examine of the effect and legacy of the European colonization. It helps in recognizing the colonial assumption and consequences having inequality in the health promotion. It draws attention towards the Western culture and colonial activities in the society (Furber et al., 2017). The Ottawa Charter have helped in implementing equality among the colonial. The Postcolonial standpoint has been critical for considering different way by which particular colonial vision of the global health has been mobilized. In the case of Nigeria, the inequality in the use of modern contraceptive has been depicted in the paper. The implementation of the Ottawa Charter have helped in mitigating these problems in the country. As argued by (Dyment et al., 2017), in the wider context of Ottawa Charter has its own production that puts in practice with the help of generalized principle.
The critical examination of the context of the Nigerian people regarding the use of the conceptive has been performed for implementing the Ottawa Charter. The action areas of the Ottawa Charter has been decided including creating supportive environment (McFarlane et al., 2017). A supportive environment helps in maintaining proper use of the modern contraceptive among women in Nigeria. Proper knowledge and awareness regarding the use of the contraceptive is required among the people pf Nigeria. This might help in understanding them about the use of the modern contraceptive. However, it is difficult not to see colonial imagination at work in a charter that is concerned with the Nigerian context. Various range of strategies are discovered for the implementation of the Ottawa Charter for maintaining balance in the use of the modern contraceptive in Nigeria. The health promotion have become a channelized process in the industry that is required by every organization. The use of the modern contraceptive have helped in maintaining the birth rate of child (Alami et al., 2017). The implementation of the Ottawa Charter in the Nigerian area have helped in maintaining the reproduction rate of the child. The mortality rate of the country has been balanced. The health promotion campaign under the Ottawa Charter have helped in providing awareness about the modern contraceptives among people in society. Emotions and social identity affects the colonial activities in the country. People are socially and emotionally attached to their loved one and require proper health care. The health promotion have been properly managed in the country for helping women from miscarriage.
As commented by Eckermann, (2017), the use of the modern contraceptive have helped in providing proper solution for the problems faced by women in Nigeria. The use of the modern contraceptive have provided various approaches for the women in their marriage life in Nigeria. The women in the society are benefited from the action area implemented by the Ottawa Charter. The positive normalization of the health promotion in the western countries have able to position this action area for intervention of everyday behavior of people. The Ottawa Charter masked power imbalances and Western-centric worldviews, while also silencing non-Western voices.
It can be concluded that the Ottawa Charter have helped in maintaining the equality of use of modern contraceptive among women. The research has focused on inequality in use of modern contraceptive in the Nigeria. The Ottawa charter has been briefly described in the report. The factors implementing in the Ottawa Charter has been properly discussed in the chapter. A critical analysis has been provided at the end of the report that help in proper understanding about the implementation of the Ottawa Charter for health promotion in Nigeria.
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