Industrial and Organizational Psychology deals with the human behaviour in relation to work and it applies the psychological theories to that of the organizations.
Emerging technologies in the modern age have changed the nature of work in the organizations of Singapore. Computerization and automation have changed the way work is carried out in the present age (Landy & Conte, 2016). A surge in the use of artificial intelligence has completely changed the work place. The organization should stay conversant with the latest technologies so that they can emerge to be successful in the competitive world. Focus will be laid on management of the soft skills that can help in developing the people and it should be underpinned by the proven tools that can help in providing hard measurement.
Diversity can be noticed within the workforce of Singapore and there are many women who are participating within the organization. The workforce of Singapore requires large amount of labour and a workforce that is diverse can help in encouraging participation. In order to build an inclusive workforce, people from different backgrounds like nationality and race are absorbed in the organizations of Singapore. It can help an organization to become more flexible and acceptable of diverse opinions. Singtel that is a telecommunications company in Singapore and the workforce of the company comprises of Malays, Chinese and Bugis (Schultz & Schultz, 2015). The cultural diversity is on account of immigration and the cultural ideal of each race is respected for the overall development of the organization.
Job Satisfaction refers to how content an individual is in his job and whether the kind of work can make the employee happy. The common facets in relation to job satisfaction are that of appreciation, personal growth, recognition and supervision (Dekoulou & Trivellas, 2015). Job satisfaction is inclusive of multidimensional psychological response and the responses have cognitive, affective and behavioural component. Cognitive job satisfaction refers to the logical evaluation in relation to different aspects of a job. Cognitive job satisfaction measures whether the job facets are held to be satisfactory by the job holder. Affective job satisfaction is indicative of the emotional feeling that the individuals have for the job (Chen, Sparrow & Cooper, 2016). Behavioural job satisfaction is indicative of whether the employee is satisfied with the behaviour of his colleagues along with the supervisors. Job experience has an impact on the kind of life of an individual as the working conditions can have effect on the mental condition of an employee. Job satisfaction is related to different key factors like general well-being, working conditions and stress at the workplace. The dispositional approach states that if a person can work on his own then it can provide higher amount of job satisfaction (David et al., 2015). It has been found that if one believes that an individual can control his life then it can lead to greater job satisfaction. The equity theory states that the manner in which an individual perceives fairness in relation to the employer can be indicative of the extent of job satisfaction (Mathieu et al., 2014). It has been found that if an employee thinks that all the decisions taken in an organisation are justified then it can lead to greater amount of job satisfaction. The discrepancy theory states that if an individual does not fulfil his responsibility then he feels a sense of anxiety. He feels regret if he is not able to perform his work in the right manner. He also feel dejected if they cannot achieve their aspiration.
Measuring the level of job satisfaction can prove to be difficult owing to subjective factors involved in the workplace. The easiest way of measuring job satisfaction is with the help of a survey (Dekoulou & Trivellas, 2015). The facet approach shows that an individual can be happy with one aspect of a job and dissatisfied with that of another aspect. The pay structure can provide an individual with job satisfaction however the relationship with that of co-workers can be a cause of unhappiness for an individual. This kind of a model cannot prove to be adequate for drawing the conclusions. The input and output model highlights the relationship in between the effort that one puts into a job with that of the output (Farooqui & Nagendra, 2014). For example, a specific job can need degree and a demanding schedule but it may prove to be inadequate in terms of benefit and pay. This model can capture different aspects in relation to job satisfaction but it combines them into a whole picture that can prove to be ineffective in capturing the difference between that of intrinsic and the external factors. Bi dimensional model treats the intrinsic factors like task variety to be different from that of the extrinsic factor like status (Liu, Tang & Yang, 2015). This model is of greater sophistication as compared to the uni dimensional model but it clusters different factors in only two categories. An accurate model should be able to measure the changes after the implementation of a new policy. A survey should be able to measure the increase in relation to job satisfaction after a significant change in the organisational policies.
The Job Satisfaction Survey can be made use of for the purpose of measuring job satisfaction. The format of the response is a Likert Scale based on six points that has answers ranging from “disagreeing to a great extent” to that of agreeing readily. Job Descriptive Index acted as the validity instrument in this survey. In order to test content validity the measure to which the different work factors are included are measured. The JSS is inclusive of nine sub-scales like salary, supervision, contingent reward, co-worker, promotion, fringe benefit, work, reward and communication (Risman, Erickson & Diefendorff, 2016). Sub-scales along with other items cover around 9 of the total of 11 standard work factors. Andrew and Withey Job Satisfaction Questionnaire can help in measuring job satisfaction at the global scale. It consists of five items. The responses are on the basis of seven-point Likert Scale. It ranges from that of delighted to that of terrible. The reliability of this questionnaire is on the basis of internal consistency. The Andrew and Withey Questionnaire can prove to be advantageous as it measures on the basis of Likert scale that comprises of seven point (David et al., 2015). It can thus help the employees of an organization to portray their emotions in relation to job satisfaction.
Training program can prove to be vital for providing the employees with job satisfaction. The pyramidal hierarchy of Maslow states that personal accomplishment is crucial for job satisfaction of the employees (Chen, Sparrow & Cooper, 2016). An individual only feels truly accomplished if he can learn while doing the job. Continuous learning is the aim of many individuals in life. Training opportunities should be provided to the employees so that so that they can increase their knowledge in a particular field (Risman, Erickson & Diefendorff, 2016). Bettering the skill set of the employees is like an investment that will help the company in achieving the organizational goal. The employees should be able to spend time on their own development that can help in increasing their job satisfaction. Feedback that is constructive can help in the job satisfaction of the employees of a company (Mathieu et al., 2014). Satisfaction can prove to be two-sided and it provides one with the opportunity to understand challenges that the employer is confronting. The recommendations for good feedback can be provided with the help of promptness, precision and frequency. Feedback should be provided on regular basis and it should contain enough details. A follow-up can be organized that can help in providing support to the employees so that they can improve themselves. Team-spirit is important for providing the employees with motivation and it can be useful in providing satisfaction to the employees. Positive energy flow in between the different workers of an organisation is of great importance. Good communication is integral for increasing job satisfaction at the local SME. In the event of the emergence of a crisis, the management should be able to take mmediate action.
Chen, P., Sparrow, P., & Cooper, C. (2016). The relationship between person-organization fit and job satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(5), 946-959.
David, S., Gidwani, R., Birthare, N., & Singh, P. (2015). Impacts of job satisfaction and organizational commitment: A study describing influence of gender difference on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. International Journal of Core Engineering and Management, 2(1), 93-111.
Dekoulou, P., & Trivellas, P. (2015). Measuring the impact of learning organization on job satisfaction and individual performance in Greek advertising sector. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 175, 367-375.
Farooqui, M. S., & Nagendra, A. (2014). The impact of person organization fit on job satisfaction and performance of the employees. Procedia economics and Finance, 11, 122-129.
Landy, F. J., & Conte, J. M. (2016). Work in the 21st century, Binder ready version: An introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology. John Wiley & Sons.
Liu, B., Tang, T. L. P., & Yang, K. (2015). When does public service motivation fuel the job satisfaction fire? The joint moderation of person–organization fit and needs–supplies fit. Public Management Review, 17(6), 876-900.
Mathieu, C., Neumann, C. S., Hare, R. D., & Babiak, P. (2014). A dark side of leadership: Corporate psychopathy and its influence on employee well-being and job satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 59, 83-88.
Risman, K. L., Erickson, R. J., & Diefendorff, J. M. (2016). The impact of person-organization fit on nurse job satisfaction and patient care quality. Applied Nursing Research, 31, 121-125.
Schultz, D., & Schultz, S. E. (2015). Psychology and Work Today: Pearson New International Edition CourseSmart eTextbook. Routledge.