The Philippines is a tropical country where temperature is high especially during summer hence Filipinos find ways to counter the uncomfortably sweltering weather especially during the summer months when ambient temperature reaches 43oC. They eat frozen food and desserts including ice cream. Ice cream is a frozen dessert made from dairy products such as milk and cream combined with flavorings and sweeteners . In some cases, artificial flavorings and colorings are added instead of natural ingredients. (Moreno, 2015).
The ice cream industry in the Philippines is composed of only a few ice cream companies who supply ice cream and dairy products in the country. The proliferation of smaller companies offering-low price branded products in the market has been snatching sales from major brands of ice cream resulting to Philippine government to implement ice cream regulation, the FDA has regulations regarding ice cream so that consumers know exactly the nutritional facts of this well-loved dessert.
Artisanal ice cream roughly translates to “dirty ice cream” produce by using traditional ice cream preparation in small batches and using manual method. The artisanal ice cream uses several common tropical fruit flavors such as mango, avocado, young and young coconut shavings. Nuts, cheese and chocolates chips and cookies are also normally added to add flavour to ice cream. The dominant market segment for ice cream is normally children, however, adults and young adults also relish eating the product (Muelhoff, 2013). It is therefore important that the nutritional component of ice cream be fortified to make it a healthier product fit for consumption of children. Ice cream can be fortified in a number of ways such as addition of healthy vegetables like squash.
Squash (Cucurbita maxima), is a vegetable crop cultivated since ancient times . It is a marginalized crop in terms of cultivation, marketing, industrialization and research. There are few scientific studies on its physical, chemical, physicochemical, nutrimental, functional and technological characteristics. Some scientific literature on squash highlights its importance as a source of α and β-carotene, lutein, vitamin C, dietary fiber, minerals, and phenolic compounds. These nutrimental and bioactive components are very important in providing human health benefits. Different researchers agree in indicating that more scientific studies are needed to achieve greater and better utilization of this important crop.( Noelia et al.",2011)
Squash has a very rich natural profile that consists of various organic compounds, nutrients, vitamins and minerals, which are responsible for providing all its impressive health benefits. This list includes a huge amount of vitamin A, as well as significant amount of vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin B6, niacin, thiamin, pantothenic acid and folate. In terms of minerals, squash contains magnesium, potassium, manganese, copper, phosphorous, calcium and iron. It is also a very good source of carotenoids and other important anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds. (Lopez-anido et al., 2013).
Several processed food products using squash as the raw material have been developed by a number of research agencies in the Philippines notable in which is the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI), one of the country’s leading government research institutions under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). Examples of these processed products include squash flour, squash juice, squash catsup, squash vinegar, squash noodles, squash chips, squash polvoron and squash pastillas. (Department of Agriculture 2011)
In addition, various kitchen recipes were supplemented with either squash flour, freshly grated squash or mashed squash are squash “leche flan, squash “halaya”, squash “macaroons”, squash “halaya”, squash “suman” and squash “kutsinta”. (Pinoy Recipes 2015).
The squash as an available resource beyond the backyard can be utilized to potentially enhance the appearance, aroma, texture and taste of ice cream as well provide nutrients. It is the intention of the researcher to use accessible and nutritious resources to develop and improve the regular artisanal ice cream recipes by further adding tropical fruit flavour to the squash-based ice cream.
The principal objective of the study is to develop squash-based “nutritious” artisanal ice cream flavored with mango. The following are the specific objectives:
1. To determine the acceptability of artisanal squash-based, mango-flavored ice cream in terms of appearance, color, aroma, taste and texture using various proportions of squash in the formulation;
2. Describe the the physico-chemical characteristics of the squash-flavored ice cream ; and
3. Assess whether the quality of the squash-based ice cream differs if four various formulations will be used.
Materials and Methods
This is an experimental study using the input-process-output model shown in Figure 1 in the formulation and evaluation of the most acceptable “nutritious” artisanal squash based ice cream with tropical fruit flavour.
Phases of the Study
There are two phases in the study namely: 1. Determination of the most acceptable level of squash in the formulation as flavor on artisanal ice cream and 2. Determination of the most preferred tropical fruit combined in artisanal squash based ice cream in the three variants namely: “Mango”, “Pineapple”, and “Passion Fruit”. The flow chart of the study is shown in figure 2.
Phase 1. Determination of the most acceptable level of squash in the formulation of artisanal nutritious squash based ice cream
The initial experiment was to determine the most acceptable level of squash powder in squash based ice cream. The proportions of the experimental lots will be 150g, 200g , 250g and 300g squash powder. A standard formulation as provided in Table 3 for plain ice cream will be used as basis in the preparation of the squash-based ice cream.
Table 3. Standard Formulation of Ice Cream
Ingredients Weight in grams
Skimmed Milk 500
Refined Sugar 1500
Coconut milk 600
Total Formulation Weight 4350
The experimental lots will use the same formulation for ice cream preparation except that various proportions of squash were added. Table 4 details the ingredients used in the experimental preparation of the squash-based ice cream.
Table 4. Formulations and Experimental Lots of Healthlicious Squash Based Ice Cream
Ingredients Lot 1-3%
Cornstarch (g) 250 250 250 250
Skimmed Milk(g) 500 500 500 500
Refined Sugar(g) 1000 1000 1000 1000
Water ( g ) 1500 1500 1500 1500
Coconut milk ( g ) 600 600 600 600
Squash Powder (g) 150 200 250 300
Total Formulation Weight 4000
Phase 2. Determination of the most preferred tropical fruit combined in artisanal ice cream in three variants namely: Mango, Pineapple and Passion Fruit.
After determining the most acceptable level of squash powder in artisanal ice cream, the addition of the tropical fruits mango, pineapple and passion fruit will be done and the acceptability determined using a hedonic rating scale. The proportion of the fruit flavors are provided in table 5.
Table 5. Formulations and Experimental Lots of Artisanal Squash Based Ice cream combined with tropical fruits
Ingredients Lot 1
Lot 2 Lot 3 Lot 4
Squash Ice Cream (g) 4000 4000 4000 4000
Mango (g) 240
Passion Fruit 240
Total Formulation Weight 4240 4240
Regulated triplicate trials based on appearance, color, taste, texture and general acceptability of the ice cream will be used in the evaluation.
Process Flow on the preparation of Squash –based ice cream
The procedure for artisanal ice cream preparation will be used in the study. Figure 3 shows the process flow used in making the artisanal squash based ice cream.The entire process flow begins with identification of the ingredients, formulating the mix, weighing and subsequently mixing the ingredients, pasteurization, homogenization, aging of the mix, freezing and extrusion, freezing and hardening, and subsequently, distribution of the product.
Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Analysis
The physico-chemical and proximate analysis of the squash-based ice cream will be determined. Analyses to be made will include: food energy, antioxidant activity as Gallic, titratable acidity as malic, tartaric and citric, total reducing sugar, total soluble solids, moisture, vitamin A (Retinol), ash, acidity, Protein, pH, calories, and total carbohydrate.
The 7 point Hedonic Scale will be used by untrained laboratory panel to rate the appearance, color, taste and texture of product sample. The 9 point Hedonic scale used to rate the general acceptability of the product. The scale and interpretation are provided below:
7 point hedonic scale 9 point hedonic scale
7 Like very much 9 Like extremely
6 Like moderately 8 like very much
5 Like slightly 7 Like moderately
4 Neither like or dislike 6 Like slightly
3 Dislike slightly 5 Neither like or dislike
2 Dislike moderately 4 Dislike slightly
1 Dislike very much 3 Dislike slightly
2 Dislike very much
Data gathered in the sensory evaluation will be analysed statistically using descriptive statistics. Significant difference between and among the lots will tested using One-Way Analysis of Variance, (ANOVA) Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) and Kramer’s Ranking Test for preference. (KRT) will be used the degree of preference on the tropical flavour used in the squash-flavored ice cream.
Affordability is one factor most consumers choose to buy a certain product. The cost of the squash based ice cream will be computed using the direct material cost based from the prevailing prices in the market.