Faster than light

Hyperloop being fastest today Bullet train and mangled train it is the easiest and cheapest method to reach the desired place in a matter of time. The system consists of a passenger capsule and a long pipe. The Capsule/Pod is suspended by vacuum in the traveling pipe. To remove any amount of air present two motors are attached at the start and end of the pipe so to the aerodynamics of Hyperloop achieving its high speed.Chances of accidents are reduced as it is a close system in which only one capsule can travel through a given pipe. Capsule/Pod it is accelerated by an electromagnetic loop created or guided pipe. Pod travels through passive magnetic levitation. Being an open design system further enhancement can be made by future generations Capsule can be controlled using applications according to users will. Hyperloop can change transportation as it takes less space, it is cost-effective.


Hyperloop is a completely new mode of transportation which has proven to be fastest yet economical. Hyperloop was firstly proposed by Elon Musk and a team of engineers from Tesla Motors and Space Exploration Tech. Corporation in August 2013. The concept of hyperloop includes the traveling of people from one place to another in a capsule propelling at a very high speed. We can also call Hyperloop as solar-powered transportation system and its an alternative for high-speed train (bullet train).So basically hyperloop is a magnetically levitated train which runs inside a long tube or pipe. The tube is a low pressured tube with the capsule that transport at both low and high speed. It includes 28passengers pods and is driven by linear induction motor and compressor. For the purpose of proportion, magnetic accelerators are planted along the length of tubes, which helps in propelling the pods forward.The tube would create a low-pressure environment that surrounds them with a cushion of air that allows a pod to travel safely at such a high speed as a puck glides over an air hockey table. The pressure built up in the front of the pod due to the tight quarter s in the tube could be a problem. A system is provided to keep the air building up in this way.Musk‟s design recommended an air compressor on the front of the pod which will help in moving the air from the front to the tail keeping it overhead and preventing the pressure built up due to the displacement of air. A one way trip in hyperloop is projected to take only about 35-minute s (Comparatively, the same distance would take about 6 hours if traveled by a car.) The passenger s may enter or exit hyperloop at stations located at the ends of the tube or branches along the tube length.

Review of literature

The design of the hyperloop capsule with linear induction was discussed by Ahmed Hodaib, Samar F. Abdal Fattah (May 2016). The agenda of discussion was to propulsion system which is used to decelerate and accelerates the capsule. The motors run on three-phase power like rotary synchronous motor, linear motors and supported with a very high speed as they studied.The motors thrust speed was reduced by the end effects. Linear The normal rotary motors for any required force output whereas linear induction motor are the less energy efficient as compare to normal rotary motors. The manufacturing of linear induction motor in this paper was also discussed.Mark Sakowski discussed the current maglev technology along with the theoretical evacuated tube technology and they concluded that the hyperloop is feasible and if properly designed, has the potential to be much more efficient in terms of energy usage of pods traversing down the tube.N. Kayela investigated the hyperloop in a 5th mode of transport. He discussed about the railway track for the hyperloop align with the stations. He also discussed the two version of capsule one passenger plus vehicle version and other passengers only version.Mohammed Imran discussed the two versions of the hyperloop one is a passenger only and the other is passenger plus vehicle version. He focused his study element on the hyperloop technology (The passenger transport system).Jeffrey C. Chin, Justin S. Gray, Scott M. Jones, Jeffrey J. Berton, They discussed about the Open-Source Conceptual Sizing Models for the Hyperloop Passenger Pod in this paper. They concluded that the refined analysis illuminates several interdisciplinary couplings that alter two major aspects of the initial concept.First, the pod travel speed and the tube cross-sectional area are linked, forcing the tube size to be roughly twice the diameter of the original specification, in order for the pod to reach Mach 0.8. Second, the steady-state tube temperature is dominated by ambient thermal interactions unrelated to the heat generated by the pod compression system.


III. Basic Principle

An underground or above ground pillar-supported tube will establish a controlled environment. A low-pressure system is created through which the passenger capsule will travel with very little air pressure to oppose its motion. This near-vacuum atmosphere which is basically pressuring around 5 to 6 Pounds per square inch absolute will be maintained by providing vacuum pumps at regular intervals. An air compressor fan driven by electric motor on the front of the capsule will transfer high air pressure from its front to the rear and sides of the vessel.This will result in the reduction of friction in front of the pod, helping it to propel and create an air cushion around it, so that the pod levitates in the air within the tube. Therefore air bearings that work on the same basic principle of air hockey table will replace wheels as wheels would not work at the required high speeds (1200 km). The capsule will be battery-powered and will be propelled by an external linear electric motor which plays an important role in propulsion of capsule producing motion in a straight line than rotational motion. This linear induction motor would propel the pod to near sonic velocity which is slower than the speed of sound but still fast enough for the movement of the capsule and provide a re-boost about every 120 km.The propulsion system is required for as little as 1 percent of the tube length which goes to prove that the propulsion system is not particularly costly. Erection of the tube on pillars above ground enables us to have the benefits of saving money, provision of protection from earthquakes, rainfall and snowfall and allowing solar panels to be placed on top. The energy obtained from these solar panels more than satisfy the operational need of the Hyperloop. This energy would also be stored in battery packs for operation during cloudy and rainy conditions and during nights.


The practically implemented prototype of Hyperloop comprises of the following fundamental parts:1. Tube and Evacuation System: The capsules carrying passengers or goods travel in tubes. One of the reasons for the high speeds of Hyperloop is its low air drag. This is possible by removing the air inside the tube and conditioning it to a near-vacuum state. This can be accomplished by installing vacuum pumps/pressure pumps at regular interval s throughout the length of the tube. Accelerators such as a linear induction motor propel the capsules, which then cruise through the vacuum for the remainder of the trip using no additional power. The energy used for propulsion can is regenerated as the capsules slow down. Using evacuated tubes make the Hyperloop 50 time s more efficient per kWh than electric cars or trains.Solar arrays will be installed over the top of the tubes in order to provide power to the system. Give n the length of the tube, the power generated through solar is much more than what is consumed by the propulsion system and the evacuating pumps. The tubes are laid like freeways and the capsules are automatically routed from origin to destination for making the system efficient. The tubes can be built for 1/10th the cost of High-Speed Rail track, or 1/4th the cost of a freeway.


Two versions of the Hyperloop capsules are being considered: a passenger only version and a passenger plus vehicle version.

3.1 Hyperloop Passenger Capsule

Assuming an average departure time of 2 minutes between capsules, a minimum of 28 passengers per capsule are required to meet 840 passengers per hour. It is possible to further increase the Hyperloop capacity by reducing the time between departures. The current baseline requires up to 40 capsules inactivity during rush hour, 6 of which are at the terminals for loading and unloading of the passengers in approximately 5 minutes.

3.2 Hyperloop Passenger Plus Vehicle Capsule

The passenger plus vehicle version of the Hyperloop will depart as often as the passenger only version, but will accommodate 3 vehicles in addition to the passengers. All subsystems discussed in the following sections are featured on both capsules.For travel at high speeds, the greatest power requirement is normally to overcome air resistance. Aerodynamic drag increases with the square of speed, and thus the power requirement increases with the cube of speed. For example, to travel twice as fast a vehicle must overcome four times the aerodynamic resistance, and input eight times the power. Just as aircraft climb to high altitudes to travel through less dense air, Hyperloop encloses the capsules in a reduced pressure tube. The pressure of air in Hyperloop is about 1/6 the pressure of the atmosphere on Mars.


A very low drag and stability is offered by air bearing suspension at a very feasible rate. A stiff air bearing suspension is perfect for reliability and safety. When a gap between ski and tube wall is high then it shows a non-linear reaction and which results in the restoration of a large pressure.


· hyperloop is a system which consists of a capsule which is passed through a tunnel or pipe at a very high speed;· it removes all the disadvantages occurred in the maglev train;· the system consist of copper coils which are coiled around the pipe at a given distance from each other;· the pipe is non-magnetized, but the capsule can be magnetized. The coil therefore produce electromagnetic current/charge which pulls the capsule in forward direction;· until it reaches the next coil the first coil is turned OFF and the second coil is turned ON, in this way it reaches till the last coil;· the supply is given by either over head wires or a battery is connected which is in turn connected to a solar panel for reserved supply;· we use two fans one at the bottom end of the pipe and one at the starting the top of the pipe. Due to this an air in the pipe is removed along with are pollutant thrown by capsule;· thereby providing vacuum and more free to the capsule to move in forward direction;· to control time of copper coil we use a microcontroller;· relay controller are used to as to handle heavy current flow;· to control the capsule as we want, an application designed which connects via Bluetooth so as to give instruction.The speed and direction etc. is shown on LCD display.

IX. Conclusion

A high-speed transportation system known as Hyperloop has been developed in this document. The work has detailed two versions of the Hyperloop: a passenger only version and a passenger plus vehicle version. Hyperloop could transport people, vehicles, and freight between Delhi and Mumbai in 1 hour. Transporting 7.4 million people each way every year and amortizing the cost of $6 billion over 20 years gives a ticket price of $20 for a one-way trip for the passenger version of Hyperloop.The passenger-only version of the Hyperloop is less than 12% of the cost of the proposed passenger-only flight system between Delhi to Mumbai. An additional passenger plus transport version of the Hyperloop has been created that is only 25% higher in cost than the passenger only version. This version would be capable of transporting passengers, vehicles, freight, etc.The passenger plus vehicle version of the Hyperloop is less than of the cost of the proposed passenger-only air travel system between Delhi to Mumbai. Additional technological developments and further optimization could likely reduce this price. The intent of this document has been to create a new open-source form of transportation that could revolutionize travel. The authors welcome feedback and will incorporate it into future revisions of the Hyperloop project, following other open-source models such as Linux.

VI. Future Work

The technology of Hyperloop is in its rudimentary stage. Even if the technology is successful, it can b e worked upon for improvement in the future. A detailed design for the stations, including loading-unloading o f passengers, improved safety features and propulsion of the capsule, has a large scope towards developing Hyperloop. One of the major challenges for Hyperloop is its adaptability to topography — sharp turns and change in altitudes.The current capsule design allows only 28 passengers to commute at a time. Research can be focused on improving the design such that the number of passengers is more.

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