Although FBS is valuable supplement, its use involves many ethical, economical and scientific issues [8, 9].About 500",000 liters of FBS is produced annually, around 1 to 3 fetuses are needed to produce just a liter of serum, This requires more than 1",000",000 animal fetus to be harvested each year.
Blood collection from fetuses is a painful process where a needle is injected in the heart of the fetus after removal from the slaughtered cow, and then the blood is pumped out by vacuum.
There are also many risk issues related to usage of FBS in cell culture as its high endotoxin content and regarded as high source of contamination with viruses, prions and mycoplasma[9, 12].Zoonic transmission of known and unknown pathogens related to animal-derived products such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Q fever, anthrax and Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease is a notable concern in using FBS. Genetic material from bovine viral diarrhea virus and new viruses like porcine circovirus 1 and bovine leukemia have been detected in bovine serum[13, 14]. Anaphylaxis and immune reactions were reported in the individuals transplanted with cells exposed to products from animal origin [15, 16].
On May 2008, The European center for the validation of alternative methods (ECVAM) Scientific Advisory Committee (ESAC) recommends to use non animal serum substitutes of FBS whenever possible , but strongly suggests the use of non-animal serum alternatives for new in vitro culture test methods.
For many decades, scientist exert great efforts to find a substitute for FBS for example, bovine colostrum, tissue extracts, plant extracts, chemically defined media, human serum and platelet lysate.
Human platelets play a vital role in tissue repairing, vascular regeneration and wound healing due to its high content of various growth factors, adhesion molecules and other important biomolecules that are stored in α-granules and released up on platelet activation.
Based on forgoing findings, the aim of this study was using of human platelet lysate (HPL) which result from synthetic activation of human platelets to be studied as an alternative to FBS where evaluation based on growth factors and protein content measurement in both samples besides studying their effect in cell culture process using HEp-2 cell line as a model.