Organizational conduct is defined as the study of human conduct in a business organization. This involves four main components that the people, the structure, technology and the external features through which the organization does its operations (Schermerhorn, et al., p.3). A basic organization is essential when people come together to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization (Malik and Kaur, p.12). The aim of organizational behavior is to have a better understanding of the factors that affect the people in an organizational setting to achieve a more competent and efficient running of the organization (Dartey-Baah and Amponsah-Tawiah, p.11). The management is tasked to incorporate the needs of the organization and its employees to offer a work setting which upholds achieving the goals of the organization (Mullins, p. 93).
How theories of organizational behavior may be applied in an organizational setting
The classical conditioning theory and the operant conditioning theories to learning have given rise to the advancement of varieties of systems usually defined as behavior adjustments. Behavior modification is a broad term for tactics to changing the behavior by use of suitable and appropriate strengthening. This method was founded on idea that individuals learn to reprise behaviors with positive results. It makes use of the values of inspirational approaches that removes behaviors in the workplace that are not desirable and to increase the occurrence of desirable behaviors. The strategies to motivate the individuals can either be in term relational or transactional rewards with the aim of making the employees feeling satisfied and committed to achieving the goals of the organization (Dartey-Baah and Amponsah-Tawiah, p.11).
Transactional recompenses take the form of increasing the salary and having paybacks that are attractive. On the other hand, the relational rewards are in the form of the organization providing conducive working environments, recognition of the employees, empowering of the employees, having a flexible balance between work and life, having a sense of achievement, involving the employees in making decision and giving the employees an chances for personal growth and career development (Dartey-Baah and Amponsah-Tawiah, p.11).
Social learning theory is used in business to have an impact on organizational behavior. This can be achieved by having new employees learning the skills of a job by observing what and how more experienced employees does.
Cognitive learning theory is used in an organization to positively impact the behavior in an organization. This can be achieved through motivating employees to learn what the aims of organizational learning are and the benefits that the management has established (Huczynski and Buchanan, p. 117). The motivational strategies may include acquiring a skill that is valued, having career opportunities or a being given a prestigious job title (Torrington et al., p. 24). The employees should be given their performance and progress status through feedback mechanism that is appropriate, frequent and clear. The organization management should focus on rewarding suitable behaviors. If the organizations resort to punishment for work poorly done, the employees may end up disliking or distrusting the management and there motivation to learn is reduced (Stewart, p. 214).
Potential organizational problem situations and proactive managerial interventions, with special sensitivity to cultural, ethical and social concerns
Improving ethical behaviors; Because of pressures to improving employee productivity and tough competition in the market place, employees feel pressured to break roles, and get involved in other kinds of practices that are questionable. Managers should create an ethically healthy working environment, living by example concerning what institutes what behaviors are right and wrong.
Globalization - The world is continuously becoming global village. The organizations should not restrict themselves to country boarders. The managers should put emphasis on how to modify their ways of management to encompass the cultural differences encountered.
Quality and productivity; Managers are challenged with the task to improving value of their merchandises and services productivity in their organizations. Manager can intervene by improving the skills of the people. They can do this by looking into the behavior of the employees, and look for ways to change their behavior and improve their interpersonal skills (Albert, p. 44).
Innovativeness and change; organizations can become extinct if they do not look for ways to come up with innovative products and services and to master the art of change. Therefore managers should maintain flexibility and be competitive in the market.
Workforce diversity is another organizational challenge to the managers. The managers need to change their viewpoint from treating every employee in the same way and to identify the dissimilarities and respond to them so as to retain the employees improve on their productivity.
Employee empowerment; Managers have to learn how to delegate some of their duties to the employees who have to learn how to take up charge for their work.
Loyalty of employees; organisations are replacing permanent employees with temporary ones in oreder to cut on expenses and increase profits. As as results of these changes, there is a decline in the loyalty of the employees and they become less committed to their employer. The manager should develop means to stimulate employees feeling less committed to their employers.
Locate relevant research and compare and critique the findings on current developments in organizational behavior
A lot of advancements have been seen by organizations in terms of operations, the people and the structure. These trends are; knowledge management, employment relations, globalization, IT and a workforce that is changing.
To become global, organizations are trying to establish fresh marketplace and technology or they reduce cost by means of specializing or low-priced employment. Additionally, organizations have changed the means of integrating their business practices with other countries.
In order to achieve the advantage of specialization, countries are outsourcing some part supply chain instead of controlling the whole chain. To react to the challenges of globalization, employees need to improve their knowledge and become a central part of the success of the organization. Globalization plays important functions in organizational behavior and has an effect on the stress management among employees (Reynolds & Namasivayam, p. 6).
Emerging employment relationship
The relationship between the employer and employee is changing in the present era. Employers are no more dictators and they are open to participative way of leadership. Employers are giving employees flexible working hours and motivate them to accomplish to their best. The management is now open to upward communication and involvement of employees in the lower level in the process of decision making in the organization (Laudon and Laudon, p.69).
There is a shortage of skilled labour in many development sectors and employers are being forced to take on less skilled workforce at first and develop them instead of hiring experienced people or hiring employees from foreign countries. New parents want to work nearer to home or from home and so employers find that they may have to make this a possibility so as to keep or find new employees. The attitudes of workers are also changing and therefore the businesses have to adjust enrollment, training and processes in the organization to adjust to the workforce that has changed.
Today, changes and progress in technology, particularly the information technology has an impact on organizations and employees. Novelties in information technology have unlocked novel techniques in doing commerce which are dissimilar from earlier practices. The way the work is done and the jobs of workers have changed as a result of technology. Performance evaluation for organizations has seen changes because of the computerized era and communication is done through wireless, which are faster and instant ways than previously done (Laudon and Laudon, p.73).
A very close association exists concerning knowledge managing and organizational behavior (Nonaka and Takeuchi, p. 27). Research has attested that organizational behavior is a key obstacle to influencing management of knowledge.
The theories of learning can be useful in many ways to positively impact organizational behaviors. The management has a role to play in organizational learning encouraging constant and shared culture and successively change the employees into appropriate behaviors and courses to produce a maintainable competitive advantage. The managers must know the vital function incentive has in impelling the behavior of persons in organization and be conversant with the cognitive stimulatory aspects which motivate the employee contentment and pledge.
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Nonaka, I. 1996. The Knowledge Creating Company. In Starkey, K. (ed.) How Organisations Learn, International Thomson Business Press (1996), pp. 18–32.
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Reynolds, D. and Namasivayam, K. (2007). Organizational behavior and human resource management in the global foodservice industry: An introduction. In D. Reynolds & K. Namasivayam (Eds.), Human Resources in the Foodservice Industry: Organizational Behavior Management Approaches (pp. 1-6). New York: Haworth
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