India has always been one of the favourite destinations for the tourist because of its diverse culture, natural heritage and Indian cuisine which has unique flavours. Each dish in Indian cuisine is made using different spices and flavours. With the economic growth and the increase in the number of high- income group people there has been an increase in the hospitality business in India. To remain in this competitive world and for long- term survival, diversification and innovation in the catering services are very important. Hospitality consists of offering beverages, food and lodging while the person is away from his house. Gastronomy means the guidance and advice relating to what, when and where to drink and eat and which manner and combinations (Ali, 2000). It is the possession of skills and knowledge relating to drink and food and the choice which should be made so as to increase the enjoyment and pleasure of drinking and eating. These pleasures form the centre of gastronomic tourism which helps in experiencing the pleasures offered by a different culture. Gastronomy is a science or art related to good eating. It refers to the enjoyment of good beverages and good food in good company (Allport, 2007). It is an indisciplinary activity where food forms the centre point while studying the different cultural components. It is an art which is related to the science of the digestive system of the people. The word gastronomy was derived from an ancient Greek work gaster meaning stomach and nomos which means law or knowledge. It can be defined as presentation, reflexive cooking, preparation and eating of the food. Gastronomy is a trans- disciplinary perspective that complements the various perspectives on culture and food, society and food and marketing and food and does not replace them. It is an answer towards the urgent requirement to understand the efficiencies, inadequacies and improvement in the gastronomic life of the society. This report describes the hospitality industry in India and the concept of Gastronomy. A critical analysis on hospitality, its impact on future development and the problems faced by the industry are also discussed in this report.
Hospitality refers towards understanding the requirements of the guest. It is the knowledge of knowing what will be appropriate for the guest and how to offer it to the guest (Rakshit & Ramalingam, 2010). Successful hospitality cannot be only measured in profit terms (Kuthiala, 2001). For successful hospitality, the host must develop the knowledge about the traditions, culture and history of the drinks and food which they make available to the guest .Hospitality means the complete experience and not only the money value and quality of accommodation and food (Chand, 2015). Managing the hospitality services and the industrial provision can be focused properly by having a border understanding about hospitality and the acts of hospitableness (Scarpato, 2002).. To enhance such experience relevant knowledge is required therefore hospitality training and education must include gastronomy component to enhance the knowledge and history about drinks and food. The characteristics of the hospitality industry includes the following components: relationship building, product-service mix, two-way communication, labor intensive and diversity in culture (Brotherton & Wood, 2008).When a customer dines in a restaurant he not only pays for the food but the services that are provided by the host. The way the services are delivered and the qualities of the staff play a more important role in enhancing the experience of the customers than the tangible product (Manaktola & Jauhari, 2007). Hospitality means building the relationships which are long term helps in generating stable revenue and goodwill and brand name among the customers (Manaktola & Jauhari, 2007). For developing brand name and loyalty various methods are applied to for example membership programmes which mean giving incentives and privileges to the frequent customers. The organisation in hospitality business interacts with customers of different religion, culture and background (Kuthiala, 2001). When the host interacts with the customers properly, than only they can have a better understanding of the requirements of the guest and provide services as per their expectation and for the full satisfaction of the customers(Maberly & Reid ,2014).From going towards the organic food and to the old ancient grains, from tapas to going to molecular gastronomy, from spiced beverages to inclination towards edible flowers and by exploring all the regional cuisine which were unexplored, in the recent time the food and the beverages were a mixture of the new and the old (Nandy,2004). What was considered old are now considered as the latest new. Going organic is a major trend that is been followed these days. Hotels are serving foods which are organic and chemical free. Deconstruction of the food creates a dimension which is new to the procedure of creating and dining (Hing, McCabe, Lewis& Leiper 1998). Deconstructing the food helps the customers to experience the new food which in turn satisfies their requirement. Molecular Gastronomy came into India in the year 1999(Kuthiala, 2001). This technique created a new wave in the food industry. The whole world was surprised by the unique representation and the favour marriage of the Indian food. And lead to a trend to master the technique among the food business. These concepts of molecular gastronomy and other technique gave a new dimension in a way the Indian dish were presented and made the experience of dining more pleasurable (Nandy,2004). The new concept which is progressive Indian Cuisine is born and the Indian kitchen became like labs. The restaurants started focusing on the high-quality experience of dining by providing international standards dining experience. It is believed by many chefs that by showcasing the unexplored Indian cuisine and by using modern techniques and preserving the ancient Indian tradition will make the biggest trend in the coming years. The Indian cuisine which was lesser known have growth big in the recent time and even the five- star restaurant are serving the old Indian cuisine (Jain, Rakhi & Bagler, 2015). The cuisine which was lesser known is becoming the latest trend in the F & B World. The sliders have changed to personalized plating and the bite- sized food has become a big trend. The ingredients which are locally produced are used in the cooking. Simple flavours are taking the place of complex dishes. These trends are gaining popularity not only because of the refreshing experience but also because of its health factors. Now the diners try to provide food in which the guest can indulge guilt-free. This trend gave rise to super foods which include beetroots and all the ugly looking vegetables like yam and elephant root have become the talk of the town. The diners are exploring the cuisine which has fewer carbohydrates and more protein. India has a very special place in hospitality in the international world. India is a very diverse country in the whole world. The restaurants are now serving the Indian classical dishes by using the elements and technology of molecular gastronomy which enhances the experience of dining for the guest and adds an element of surprise on the plate. Using the new technique helps to preserve the old ancient cuisine of Indian to a new level which helps in enhancing its flavour and preserving the old traditions (Kivela & Crotts,2006). The hospitality industry of India is considered to be among the finest in the world since a long- time and it has not changed till now. The travel and tourism industry of India contributes 8.6% in 2010 towards the GDP which is estimated to increase to 9% till 2020. The demand of this industry is expected to grow in the coming years by 8.2%. With the growth of travel sector, the industry of hospitality is growing faster both in terms of revenue and employment. In the year 2000, India has 2.7 million visitors from around the world which have increased to 5.14 million in the year 2009 (Bharwani & Butt,2012).. Although when compared with other Asian countries it is less but India has the potential to develop its tourism in the recent years. Indian has a great tradition which accommodates people of all the different origins, lifestyle, religion and habits. The philosophy of Indian culture is based on “Atithi Devo Bhava", which treat guest as a god.
Critical Analysis Of Hospitality Industry in India
Earlier people use to dine only on a special occasion which has changed now to dining 5-6 times during a week. This trend is more popular in the metros. With the change in time, the focus towards cuisine has also been evolving. During the period of 70’s and 80’s the main focus was on serving traditional Indian food without much importance being given to the presentation and the whole dining experience. Earlier the main focus was on Punjabi and north Indian food which represented the culinary history of India but now the restaurateurs and the chefs are taking extra efforts to show the culinary strength of the Indian food from all the regions of India(Bharwani & Mathews, 2012).. They take extra efforts to retain the traditional roots of the food and represent them with the modern style and influence. One of the recent reports by a world tourism organisation says that tourist spends one- third of its expenditure on tourism on food which means that the important of the cuisine of the particular destination is growing. The days when a tourist visited the place for its nature and tourist attraction have now taken a back place and tourist now visits a new place to taste the local food of that place. They visit the old traditional restaurants to enjoy the real food and flavours on their plate. This trend has grown in recent time because of the social groups which encourage the people to visit new places only to taste the food they serve. The places in India like Kashmir, coorg and north- east are now explored by the people more for the food they serve than that for their natural beauty(Kivela & Crotts,2006).. In the coming year, this trend is going to increase even more with people being more interested to explore the new food and experience being a part of new culture. Indian food is prepared in various styles which depend on where it is being prepared like east, west, north or south. Traditionally Indian food was eaten by sitting on the floor and by using hands which are slowly losing popularity because of western influence.
There are various issues that the Tourism and hospitality need to face which include education and training, Management and organisation, food and product innovation, marketing, current trends etc. (Bharwani & Mathews, 2012).Indian foods are now served with a hint of modern touch. Restaurants now serve the food which showcases the strength from all the geographical areas of the country. But the problem that is faced and seen in last 70-80 years is that most of the restaurant serves the food of North India and it does not showcase the culinary landscape that India can offer. Despite Indian food has a global presence than also the cuisine lacks standardisation, authenticity and a sense of elegance. From more than a decade the same dishes are made available weather in small roadside shops or five- star restaurants which make it boring. It had not experience innovation (Jauhari, 2012). The dishes are served in a huge portion and more focus is given on the quantity and not on the presentation and the quality. The challenges and the environment of India as compared to the west are very different. Due to the difference in beliefs and culture sometimes misunderstanding and conflicts occur. The hospitality industry is service- oriented industry and therefore it requires huge labor supply in order to cater the requirements of the customers and make their experience memorable (Navarro, Serrano, Lasa, Luis Aduriz, & Ayo, 2012).The main problem that the hospitality industry faces is the shortage of skilled labour. Retaining skill and qualified labour is the major problem. The wages and salaries paid to the employees are not that attractive as given to the employees of other sectors. This industry has not earned the reputation to be chosen as a career by the people. Proper training are not being made available to the employees so that they can develop their skills. The construction cost and all the other cost of equipment, furnitures and fixtures keep on rising which affect the budgeting and renovation activities of the present restaurants. There is lack of awareness among the people of this industry which in turn affect their efficiency. The changes in the travel trends and the ever- changing technology severely affect the growth and profit earning capacity of this industry. Capital helps in providing asset liquidity and helps in the development of more new hotels. It becomes difficult for this industry to sustain profit because of the increase in the operating cost, rise in the cost of capital, increase in the labor cost and energy cost.This industry is facing a severe shortage of well-equipped and skilled managers and labors who could cater with this ever changing scenario. Institutional investment increases the asset value but it decreases or lower the return earned from them.
The tourism and hospitality industry is undergoing various changes and is evolving slowly. The practices followed in the past are advancing through the development of skills and knowledge acquired to create innovations in different ways. But in recent times the restaurateurs and the chefs are becoming conscious and moving towards modern approach so as to innovate the old Indian dishes and make the experience of Indian food worthwhile around the globe. To solve these problems the staff should be open minded.Gastronomy must develop its own universities, academicians so that it can take its own place among all other science.
Alternative Hospitality Paradigms
With the changes in the business trend and growth of the hospitality business, a new operational model is used which consist of 3 paradigms and mix of 4e’s (emotion, engagement, exclusivity and experience) and has replaced the 4e’s of marketing (price, product, placement and promotion).In the new model, it is believed that customers are human and their hope and aspiration should not be neglected. In this new model online situation and brand management plays a very significant role. Innovative technology is used now a day. As the society has become more concern about the environment issues and has become more emotional therefore the industry now focus on the emotions of the client than the promotions (Kesimo??lu, 2015).The use of energy saving mechanism are used and alternative ways of financing are used to become self-sufficient. Green technologies are used which are cost efficient. Social networking sites are used for the marketing which saves the cost which was earlier spending on the marketing strategy by the hospitality business. It also helps to keep a track on the activities of the competitors. Social networks are widely used by the customers to know the goodwill of a particular brand and after reading the reviews of other people they visit the hotel. It has become one of the cheapest sources to gain knowledge about the restaurant and the latest trends. Working in the hospitality business has many pros and cons.There is a large variety of choices in the hospitality industry because of its booming development. Many new restaurants are hotels are opening to cater to the requirement of the locals and the visitors which helps in facilitating huge demand for the labor. Jobs range from the back of the house to front of the house positions. This industry provides long term career development to the employees (Kivela & Crotts, 2009). They enjoy many fringe benefits apart from the basic salary, insurance coverage and annual bonus. The hotel market in India was dominated by the leading hotel chains like Taj, Oberoi, ITC and only very few international brands. But slowly the international brands are expanding. Till now 50 international brand hotel chains entered the marketplace of India. With the entrance of international brand, there is more competition and professionalism in the hotel industry has also grown.
The search on new hospitality, which is free from the narrowness of all the commercially foods/drink/ accommodation comes under gastronomy studies. Gastronomy and Hospitality studies have struggled a lot apart from becoming an independent academic study. Hospitality relates to the drinking and eating activities of the customers and the relation of the host with the society.Everyone has different ways to describe the hospitality. Some define the industry and its features have both intangible and tangible features in its service delivery procedure while others define the industry by exploring the shareholders involves and benefits generated from the industry. Basically, it is the act of welcoming the guest and taking care of the basic needs of the guest’s relating to their drink, food and accommodation. It is a relationship process between the guest and the host. Working in this field can be challenging. It is unique in nature compared to other sectors because it is service oriented. Gastronomy studies provide hospitality with the needed cultural, historical and social capital. Gastronomy studies help in providing teaching and research in the commercial hospitality business. It is the time that both the gastronomy and hospitality business begin working with each other so that the expectations of both are fulfilled. Gastronomy studies are about finding new methods about all the gastronomic activities in which the place of hospitality is very important. It helps to place the food in the heart of the customers. The main aim of Gastronomy is to provide the customers with the best nourishment possible. It provides advice and guidance by following certain principles to all the people who are interested in preparing food. In this age of modern society, guidance could be provided by academics. Gastronomy must develop its own universities, academicians so that it can take its own place among all other science. It gives the guest the experience of being a part of a different culture and in relating with the people of the different culture. It provides meals based on the local tradition. It is not being confined towards the economic definition but the educational curriculum and research agenda according to the new theoretical framework.
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